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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

The origin of language

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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь Учреждение образования «Гомельский государственный университет им. Ф. Скорины» Филологический факультет Курсовая работа HE ORIGI OF LA GUAGE Исполнитель: Студентка группы К-52 Лапицкая Т.Е. Гомель 2007 СодержаниеI roduc io Origi of la guage Co clusio Li era ure I roduc io &quo ; o fallaciis obru um, o halluci a io ibus demersum, o adhuc e ebris circumfusum s udium hocce mihi visum es , u ihil sa is u o i hac ma eria praes ari posse arbi ra us sim, isi ova quadam ar e cri ica praemissa.&quo ;-SCIPIO MAFFEIUS: Cassiod. Complexio es , p. xxx. he origi of hi gs is, for ma y reaso s, a peculiarly i eres i g poi i heir his ory. Amo g hose who have hough fi o i quire i o he prime origi of speech, i has bee ma er of dispu e, whe her we ough o co sider i a special gif from Heave , or a acquisi io of i dus ry- a a ural e dowme , or a ar ificial i ve io . or is a y hi g ha has ever ye bee said upo i , sufficie o se he ques io perma e ly a res . ha here is i some words, a d perhaps i some of every la guage, a a ural co exio be wee he sou ds u ered a d he hi gs sig ified, ca o be de ied; ye , o he o her ha d, here is, i he use of words i ge eral, so much o which a ure affords o clew or i dex, ha his whole process of commu ica i g hough by speech, seems o be ar ificial. U der a o her head, I have already ci ed from Sa c ius some opi io s of he a cie grammaria s a d philosophers o his poi . Wi h he reaso i g of ha zealous i s ruc or, he followi g se e ce from Dr. Blair very obviously accords: &quo ; o suppose words i ve ed, or ames give o hi gs, i a ma er purely arbi rary, wi hou a y grou d or reaso , is o suppose a effec wi hou a cause. here mus have always bee some mo ive which led o he assig a io of o e ame ra her ha a o her.&quo ;- Rhe . , Lec . vi, p. 55. Bu , i heir e deavours o explai he origi a d early progress of la guage, several lear ed me , amo g whom is his celebra ed lec urer, have eedlessly perplexed bo h hemselves a d heir readers, wi h su dry ques io s, assump io s, a d reaso i gs, which are ma ifes ly co rary o wha has bee made k ow o us o he bes of all au hori y. Wha sig ifies i for a ma o ell us how a io s rude a d barbarous i ve ed i erjec io s firs , a d fi ally he o her par s of speech; whe he himself co fesses ha he does o k ow whe her la guage &quo ;ca be co sidered a huma i ve io a all;&quo ; a d whe he believed, or ough o have believed, ha he speech of he firs ma , hough probably augme ed by hose who af erwards used i , was, esse ially, he o e la guage of he ear h for more ha eigh ee ce uries? he ask of i ve i g a la guage de ovo, could surely have falle upo o ma bu Adam; a d he, i he garde of Paradise, had doub less some aids a d facili ies o commo o every wild ma of he woods. he lear ed Doc or was equally puzzled o co ceive, &quo ;ei her how socie y could form i self, previously o la guage, or how words could rise i o a la guage, previously o socie y formed.&quo ;- Blair's Rhe . , Lec . vi, p. 54. his oo was bu a idle perplexi y, hough housa ds have gravely pored over i si ce, as a par of he s udy of rhe oric; for, if ei her could be previous o he o her, hey mus have spru g up simul a eously.

A d i is a sor of sla der upo our prime a ces or, o sugges , ha , because he was &quo ; he firs ,&quo ; he mus have bee &quo ; he rudes &quo ; of his race; a d ha , &quo ;co seque ly, hose firs rudime s of speech,&quo ; which alo e he supposi io allows o him or o his family, &quo ;mus have bee poor a d arrow.&quo ;- Blair's Rhe . , p. 54. I is far more reaso able o hi k, wi h a la er au hor, ha , &quo ;Adam had a i sigh i o a ural hi gs far beyo d he acu es philosopher, as may be ga hered from his givi g of ames o all crea ures, accordi g o heir differe co s i u io s.&quo ;- Robi so 's Scrip ure Charac ers , p. 4. Bu Dr. Blair is o alo e i he view which he here akes. he same hi g has bea sugges ed by o her lear ed me . hus Dr. James P. Wilso , of Philadelphia, i a oc avo published i 1817, says: &quo ;I is difficul o discer how commu i ies could have exis ed wi hou la guage, a d equally so o discover how la guage could have ob ai ed, i a peopled world, prior o socie y.&quo ;- Wilso 's Essay o Gram. , p. 1. I k ow o how so ma y professed Chris ia s, a d some of hem eachers of religio oo, wi h he Bible i heir ha ds, ca reaso upo his subjec as hey do. We fi d hem, i heir specula io s, co spiri g o represe primeval ma , o use heir ow words, as a &quo ;savage, whose 'howl a he appeara ce of da ger, a d whose exclama io s of joy a he sigh of his prey, rei era ed, or varied wi h he cha ge of objec s, were probably he origi of la guage.'- Boo h's A aly ical Dic io ary . I he daw of socie y, ages may have passed away, wi h li le more co verse ha wha hese effor s would produce.&quo ;- Gardi er's Music of a ure , p. 31. Here Gardi er quo es Boo h wi h approba io , a d he la er, like Wilso , may have borrowed his ideas from Blair. hus are we augh by a mul i ude of guessers, grave, lear ed, a d oracular, ha he las of he e par s of speech was i fac he firs : &quo ;I erjec io s are exceedi gly i eres i g i o e respec . hey are, here ca be li le doub , he oldes words i all la guages; a d may be co sidered he eleme s of speech.&quo ;- Bucke's Classical Gram. , p. 78. O his poi , however, Dr. Blair seems o o be qui e co sis e wi h himself: &quo ; hose exclama io s, herefore, which by grammaria s are called i erjec io s, u ered i a s ro g a d passio a e ma er, were, beyo d doub , he firs eleme s or begi i gs of speech.&quo ;- Rhe . , Lec . vi, p. 55. &quo ; he ames of se sible objec s were, i all la guages, he words mos early i roduced.&quo ;- Rhe . , Lec . xiv, p. 135. &quo ; he ames of se sible objec s,&quo ; says Murray oo, &quo ;were he words mos early i roduced.&quo ;- Oc avo Gram. , p. 336. Ba wha says he Bible? Origi of la guage Revela io i forms us ha our firs proge i or was o o ly e dowed wi h he facul y of speech, bu , as i would appear, ac ually i ci ed by he Dei y o exer ha facul y i givi g ames o he objec s by which he was surrou ded. &quo ;Ou of he grou d he Lord God formed every beas of he field a d every fowl of he air; a d brough hem u o Adam, o see wha he would call hem: a d wha soever Adam called every livi g crea ure, ha was he ame hereof.

A d Adam gave ames o all ca le, a d o he fowls of he air, a d o every beas of he field; bu for Adam here was o fou d a help mee for him.&quo ;- Ge . , ii, 19, 20. his accou of he firs ami g of he o her crea ures by ma , is appare ly a pare hesis i he s ory of he crea io of woma , wi h which he seco d chap er of Ge esis co cludes. Bu , i he precedi g chap er, he Dei y is represe ed o o ly as calli g all hi gs i o exis e ce by his Word ; bu as speaki g o he firs huma pair, wi h refere ce o heir i crease i he ear h, a d o heir domi io over i , a d over all he livi g crea ures formed o i habi i . So ha he order of he eve s ca o be clearly i ferred from he order of he arra io . he ma er of his commu ica io o ma , may also be a subjec of doub . Whe her i was, or was o , made by a voice of words, may be ques io ed. Bu , surely, ha Bei g who, i crea i g he world a d i s i habi a s, ma ifes ed his ow i fi i e wisdom, e er al power, a d godhead, does o lack words, or a y o her mea s of sig ifica io , if he will use hem. A d, i he i spired record of his work i he begi i g, he is cer ai ly represe ed, o o ly as ami g all hi gs impera ively, whe he spoke hem i o bei g, bu as expressly calli g he ligh Day, he dark ess igh , he firmame Heave , he dry la d Ear h, a d he ga heri gs of he migh y wa ers Seas. Dr. homas Har well Hor e, i comme di g a work by Dr. Ellis, co cer i g he origi of huma wisdom a d u ders a di g, says: &quo ;I shows sa isfac orily, ha religio a d la guage e ered he world by divi e revela io , wi hou he aid of which, ma had o bee a ra io al or religious crea ure.&quo ;-S udy of he Scrip ures, Vol. i, p. 4. &quo ;Pla o a ribu es he primi ive words of he firs la guage o a divi e origi ;&quo ; a d Dr. Wilso remarks, &quo ; he ra si io from sile ce o speech, implies a effor of he u ders a di g oo grea for ma .&quo ;- Essay o Gram. , p. 1. Dr. Bea ie says, &quo ;Ma ki d mus have spoke i all ages, he you g co s a ly lear i g o speak by imi a i g hose who were older; a d, if so, our firs pare s mus have received his ar , as well as some o hers, by i spira io .&quo ;-Moral Scie ce, p. 27. Hor e ooke says, &quo ;I imagi e ha i is, i some measure, wi h he vehicle of our hough s, as wi h he vehicles for our bodies. ecessi y produced bo h.&quo ;-Diversio s of Purley, Vol. i, p. 20. Agai : &quo ;La guage, i is rue, is a ar , a d a glorious o e; whose i flue ce ex e ds over all he o hers, a d i which fi ally all scie ce wha ever mus ce re: bu a ar spri gi g from ecessi y, a d origi ally i ve ed by ar less me , who did o si dow like philosophers o i ve i .&quo ;- Ib. , Vol. i, p. 259. Mil o imagi es Adam's firs k owledge of speech, o have spru g from he heari g of his ow voice; a d ha voice o have bee raised, i s i c ively, or spo a eously, i a a ima ed i quiry co cer i g his ow origi -a i quiry i which he addresses o u i ellige objec s, a d i ferior crea ures, such ques io s as he Dei y alo e could a swer: &quo ;Myself I he perused, a d limb by limb Surveyed, a d some imes we , a d some imes ra Wi h supple joi s, as lively vigor led: Bu who I was, or where, or from wha cause, K ew o ; o speak I ried, a d for hwi h spake; My o gue obeyed, a d readily could ame Wha ever I saw .

If someone asks them at a dinner party what a programming language is, they'll say something like "Oh, a high-level language is what the compiler uses as input to generate object code." High-level language? Compiler? Object code? Someone who doesn't know what a programming language is obviously doesn't know what these things are, either. Part of what software has to do is explain itself. So to write good software you have to understand how little users understand. They're going to walk up to the software with no preparation, and it had better do what they guess it will, because they're not going to read the manual. The best system I've ever seen in this respect was the original Macintosh, in 1984. It did what software almost never does: it just worked. Source code, too, should explain itself. If I could get people to remember just one quote about programming, it would be the one at the beginning of Structure and Interpretation of Computer Programs. Programs should be written for people to read, and only incidentally for machines to execute. Figure 2-2

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85. The Clash of Civilizations

86. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language
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