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Искусство, Культура, Литература Искусство, Культура, Литература     Литература, Лингвистика Литература, Лингвистика

History of the USA

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U i ed S a es, his ory of he Ma y peoples have co ribu ed o he developme of he U i ed S a es of America, a vas a io ha arose from a sca eri g of Bri ish colo ial ou pos s i he ew World. he firs huma s o i habi he or h America co i e were migra s from or heas Asia who es ablished se leme s i or h America as early as 8000 BC a d possibly much earlier (see OR H AMERICA ARCHAEOLOGY). By abou AD 1500 he a ive peoples of he areas or h of he Rio Gra de had developed a varie y of differe cul ures (see I DIA S, AMERICA ). he vas regio s re chi g eas ward from he Rocky Mou ai s o he A la ic Ocea was rela ively sparsely popula ed by ribes whose eco omies were ge erally based o hu i g a d ga heri g, fishi g, a d farmi g.VIKI GS explored he or h America mai la d i he 10 h a d 11 h ce uries a d se led here briefly (see VI LA D). Of more las i g impor a ce, however, was he firs voyage (1492-93) of Chris opher COLUMBUS, which i augura ed a age of grea Europea EXPLORA IO of he Wes er Hemisphere. Various Europea s a es (i cludi g Spai , Fra ce, E gla d, he e herla ds, a d Por ugal) a d heir radi g compa ies se ou expedi io s o explore he ew World duri g he ce ury a d a half ha followed. he Spa ish claimed vas areas, i cludi g Florida, Mexico, a d he regio wes of he Mississippi River, al hough hey co ce ra ed heir se leme sou h of he Rio Gra de. he Fre ch explored much of he area ha became Ca ada a d es ablished several se leme s here. Of mos sig ifica ce, however, for he subseque developme of he U i ed S a es, was he E glish colo iza io of he regio alo g he A la ic coas . BRI ISH COLO IES I OR H AMERICA A he e d of he period of urmoil associa ed wi h he Pro es a Reforma io i E gla d, he E glish people became free o ur heir a e io o some o her ma ers a d o seek ew oppor u i ies ou side heir i y isla d. I er al s abili y u der Elizabe h I (r. 1558-1603) a d a expa di g eco omy combi ed wi h a bold i ellec ual ferme o produce a soari g self-co fide ce. Irela d experie ced he firs impac : by he begi i g of he 17 h ce ury i had bee wholly subjuga ed by he E glish. Sco ish a d E glish Pro es a s were dispa ched o "colo ize" where he savage Irish, as hey were called, had bee expelled, especially i he or her provi ces. he , e repre eurs bega o look o or h America, claimed by E gla d o he basis of he voyages of discovery of Joh CABO (1497-99). he Chesapeake Colo ies he E glish had failed i heir a emp s i he 1580s o fou d a colo y a ROA OKE o he Virgi ia coas . I 1606, however, he LO DO COMPA Y, es ablished o exploi or h America resources, se se lers o wha i 1607 became JAMES OW , he firs perma e E glish colo y i he ew World. he colo is s suffered ex reme hardships, a d by 1622, of he more ha 10,000 who had immigra ed, o ly 2,000 remai ed alive. I 1624 co rol of he faili g compa y passed o he crow , maki g Virgi ia a royal colo y. Soo he obacco rade was flourishi g, he dea h ra e had falle , a d wi h a legisla ure ( he House of Burgesses, es ablished i 1619) a d a abu da ce of la d, he colo y e ered a period of prosperi y. I dividual farms, available a low cos , were worked primarily by whi e i de ured serva s (laborers who were bou d o work for a umber of years o pay for heir passage before receivi g full freedom).

he Chesapeake Bay area became a la d of oppor u i y for poor E glish people.I 1632, Maryla d was gra ed o he CALVER family as a perso al possessio , o serve as a refuge for Roma Ca holics. Pro es a s, as well, flooded i o he colo y, a d i 1649 he olera io Ac was issued, guara eei g freedom of worship i Maryla d o all ri i aria Chris ia s. he ew E gla d Colo ies I 1620, Puri a Separa is s, la er called PILGRIMS, sailed o he MAYFLOWER o ew E gla d, es ablishi g PLYMOU H COLO Y, he firs perma e se leme here. hey were followed i 1629 by o her Puri a s (see PURI A ISM), u der he auspices of he MASSACHUSE S BAY COMPA Y, who se led he area arou d Bos o . Duri g he Grea Puri a Migra io ha followed (1629-42), abou 16,000 se lers arrived i he Massachuse s Bay Colo y. he Puri a s se ou o build a "ci y o a hill" i e ded o provide a model of godly livi g for he world. S ric Calvi is s, s ro gly commu al, a d livi g i closely bou d villages, hey e visio ed a God a gered a huma ra sgressio s, who chose, purely accordi g o his i scru able will, a mere "righ eous fragme " for salva io . Disside s of a Bap is orie a io fou ded Rhode Isla d (char ered 1644). I 1639, Puri a s o wha was he he fro ier es ablished he Fu dame al Orders of Co ec icu , he firs wri e co s i u io i or h America; he colo y was char ered i 1662. he se leme s i ew Hampshire ha spra g up i he 1620s were fi ally proclaimed a separa e royal colo y i 1679. Plymou h la er became (1691) par of he royal colo y of Massachuse s. he Res ora io Colo iesA lo g era (1642-60) of urmoil i E gla d, which i cluded he Civil War, Oliver Cromwell's republica Commo weal h, a d he Pro ec ora e, e ded wi h he res ora io of he S uar s i he perso of Charles II. A amazi g period e sued, duri g which colo ies were fou ded a d o her acquisi io s were made. I 1663, Caroli a was char ered; se leme bega i 1670, a d from he s ar he colo y flourished. he erri ory la er came u der royal co rol as Sou h Caroli a (1721) a d or h Caroli a (1729).I 1664 a E glish flee arrived o claim by righ of prior discovery he la d alo g he Hudso a d Delaware rivers ha had bee se led a d occupied by he Du ch si ce 1624. Mos of EW E HERLA D ow became ew York colo y a d i s pri cipal se leme , ew Ams erdam, became he ci y of ew York. ew York colo y, already mul ie h ic a d s ro gly commercial i spiri , came u der co rol of he crow i 1685. ew Jersey, sparsely se led by he Du ch, Swedes, a d o hers, was also par of his E glish claim. I s proprie ors divided i i o Eas a d Wes Jersey i 1676, bu he colo y was reu i ed as a royal provi ce i 1702.I 1681, Pe sylva ia, a d i 1682, wha eve ually became (1776) Delaware, were gra ed o William PE , who fou ded a grea Quaker se leme i a d arou d Philadelphia. Quaker heology differed widely from ha of he ew E gla d Puri a s. Believi g i a lovi g God who speaks direc ly o each pe i e soul a d offers salva io freely, Quakers fou d elabora e church orga iza io s a d ordai ed clerics u ecessary. I dia Wars I 1675 disease-ridde a d pover y-s ricke I dia s i ew E gla d se off agai s he whi es.

Almos every Massachuse s ow experie ced he horror of I dia warfare; housa ds o bo h sides were slaugh ered before Ki g Philip, he Wampa oag chief, was killed i 1676 a d he war e ded. Virgi ia s, appalled a his eve , i 1676 bega a acki g he Occa eechees despi e he disapproval of he royal gover or, Sir William BERKELEY. he , u der a ha iel Baco , dissa isfied a d a gry colo is s expelled Berkeley from James ow a d proclaimed Baco 's Laws, which gave he righ o vo e o all freedme . Royal roops soo arrived o pu dow he uprisi g, k ow as.Alo g he Mohawk River i ew York, he Five a io s of he IROQUOIS LEAGUE mai ai ed heir powerful co federacy wi h i s sophis ica ed gover i g s ruc ure a d s ro g religious fai h. Allies of he E glish agai s he Fre ch alo g he Sai Lawre ce River, hey domi a ed a vas regio wes ward o Lake Superior wi h heir powerful a d well-orga ized armies. he FRE CH A D I DIA WARS, a series of grea wars be wee he wo Europea powers a d heir I dia allies, e ded i 1763 whe Fre ch rule was eradica ed from or h America a d Ca ada was placed u der he Bri ish crow . 18 h-Ce ury Social a d Eco omic Developme sI he 1700s he Bri ish colo ies grew rapidly i popula io a d weal h. A formerly crude socie y acquired a polished a d umerous eli e. rade a d ci ies flourished. he 250,000 se lers who had lived i he mai la d colo ies o he sou h of Ca ada i 1700 became 2,250,000 by 1775 a d would grow o 5,300,000 by 1800. Se leme expa ded widely from he coas al beachheads of he 17 h ce ury i o back-cou ry regio s wi h profou dly diverge ways of life.Several o -E glish e h ic groups migra ed o he Bri ish colo ies i large umbers duri g he 18 h ce ury. By 1775, Germa s, who se led primarily i he Middle Colo ies bu also i he back-cou ry Sou h, umbered abou 250,000. hey were members of he Lu hera a d Germa Reformed (Calvi is ) churches or of pie is sec s (Moravia s, Me o i es, Amish, a d he like); he pie is s, i par icular, e ded o live separa ely, avoidi g E glish- speaki g peoples. From he 1730s waves of Sco s-Irish immigra s, umberi g perhaps 250,000 by he ime of he Revolu io , swelled he ra ks of he o - E glish group. Formi g de se se leme s i Pe sylva ia, as well as i ew York's Hudso Valley a d i he back-cou ry Sou h, hey brough wi h hem he Presby eria church, which was o become widely promi e i America life. Ma y of hese immigra s were i de ured serva s; a small perce age were crimi als, ra spor ed from he jails of E gla d, where hey had bee impriso ed for deb or for more serious crimes. he colo y of Georgia was gra ed i 1732 o reformers, led by James OGLE HORPE, who e visio ed i as a asylum for E glish deb ors, as well as a buffer agai s Spa ish Florida. Georgia, oo, was colo ized by ma y o -E glish people. he Grow h of Slavery Slaves from Africa were used i small umbers i he colo ies from abou 1619 (see BLACK AMERICA S; SLAVERY). Af er Bri ish mercha s joi ed he Du ch i he slave rade la er i he 17 h ce ury, prices umbled a d i creasi g umbers of black people were ra spor ed i o he sou her colo ies o be used for pla a io labor. Slaves were also used i he or her colo ies, bu i far fewer umbers.

Собрание сочинений в шести томах. "Худ. лит.", М., 1969, "Александр Блок", т. 6, стр. 525. А. И. Герцена. В США он получил степень доктора философии в Берклейском университете, защитив диссертацию "Сатира и юмор Михаила Зощенко". Преподавал русский язык и литературу в Монтерее, Станфорде и Беркли. В настоящее время Михаил Крепс -- профессор русского языка и литературы в Бостонском колледже. About the Author Born in Leningrad, Michael Kreps has studied and worked both in Russia and in the USA. He holds a degree in English Literature from Leningrad University and a PhD in Slavic Languages and Literatures from the University of California, Berkeley. He has taught at the Leningrad Pedagogical Institute, at the Monterey Institute of International Studies, and at Stanford and Berkeley Universities. At present he is a professor of Slavic Languages and Literatures at Boston College.

1. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

2. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

3. Cities of the USA

4. Flora and Fauna of the USA

5. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

6. The origin and history of the English language
The origin and history of the English language
7. The history of railways (История железных дорог)
8. The history of Old English and its development
The history of Old English and its development

9. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

10. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

11. The history of Christmas

12. The development of computers in the USA

13. The history of Ancient Egypt

14. History of Homeschooling in USA

15. The history of Germany and tourism

16. The history of grammatical study of the English language

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17. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

18. History of runic alphabets

19. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

20. My modern image of the United States

21. The fastest computers of the world

22. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)
23. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
24. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

25. The fastest computers of the world

26. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

27. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

28. The Taming of the Shrew

29. The dark side of the moon

30. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

31. Culture of the youth

32. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia

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33. Discovery of the New World

34. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

35. History of Basketball

36. The pride of the nation

37. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

38. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”
39. Dawn of the digital information era
Dawn of the digital information era
40. History of Great Britain
History of Great Britain

41. Sports in the USA

42. The war of the roses

43. History of runes

44. Survey of the British Geography and Life

45. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century

46. Holidays in Russia, Britain and the USA

47. The making of the collection

48. For the Beauty of the Earth

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49. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

50. Giza, Wonder of the World

51. The development of the Tower

52. Second period of the Renaissance.

53. The Taming of the Shrew

54. Population of the UK
Population of the UK
55. History of San Marino
History of San Marino
56. History of Belarus
History of Belarus

57. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

58. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

59. Algorithmic recognition of the Verb

60. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century

61. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

62. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

63. Economy of the United States

64. History of American Literature

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65. Industrial development of the African countries

66. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

67. Sport in different countries of the world

68. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

69. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

70. The marking of the Russian Revolution
The marking of the Russian Revolution
71. The outline of the period
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72. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English
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73. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

74. The USA economy

75. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

76. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

77. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

78. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

79. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

80. The Tax System of the United States

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81. The cities of USA

82. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

83. The Economy of Great Britain

84. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

85. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

86. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns
The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns
87. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
88. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

89. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

90. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

91. The Tower of London

92. The Economy of Great Britain

93. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

94. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

95. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

96. The Hero of Our Time

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97. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

98. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

99. Ways of exploring the world

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