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The basic features of translation informal lexicon

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HE MI IS RY OF EDUCA IO A D SCIE CES OF UKRAI E CE RAL ADMI IS RA IVE BOARD OF EDUCA IO A D SCIE CE AGE CY Discipli e: &quo ; he E glish la guage&quo ; &quo ; he basic fea ures of ra sla io i formal lexico &quo ; Kyiv – 2009 he pla I roduc io 1. ra sla io , as a specific ki d of huma ac ivi y 2. Me hods, approaches a d recep io s which ca be applied while ra sla i g i formal lexico 2.1 Me hods, recep io s a d approaches of ra sla io 2.2 ra sla io al ra sforma io a d ypes of lexical ra sforma io s 2.3 Use euphemism while ra sla i g i formal lexico Co clusio s he lis of he used li era ure I roduc io Duri g las decades especially i e sive developme i area ra sla io is observed. Pri cipal causes of his phe ome o are he cer ai gravi a io of he world commu i y o i egra io . Co s a ly here is a excha ge of he go i forma io ( o a all levels, i is usual), cul ural proper ies. he i er a io al co fere ces bo h wi h scie ific, a d o social ques io s are carried ou . here is a vigorous excha ge i he field of he film-i dus ry. hough, probably, i would be more expedie o ell, ha here is a i e sive i flow of he wes er film-i dus ry o our marke . All his appreciably prede ermi es developme ra sla io , i fac a y area whe her scie ces, whe her cul ures, whe her a social life he u ders a di g, adequacy dema ds he cer ai approach, o he par of speaki g a o her la guage par ers. Very much freque ly while ra sla i g he scie ific, ech ical whe her eco omic li era ure he ra sla or e cou ers he cer ai reali ies which o o clear our reader a d a all have o co formi y i our la guage. I such cases of a ask of he ra sla or co sis s i ha is whe ever possible more exac , понятнее a d more shor ly o recrea e hem i our la guage. Cer ai ly, o always i is possible o reach all a o ce – some imes i is ecessary o e dow co cise ess, ma agi g i a descrip ive expla a io of his or ha lexeme; some imes i is ecessary o replace simply heir reali y o such, ha he cer ai measure перекликается wi h ours, has he commo wi h ours of a a ribu e, hus deformi g he cer ai measure he mai e a ce of he origi al. ever heless, o begi i g from all his he cer ai sides of ra sla io remai poorly i ves iga ed. So, o e of such problems is ra sla io so-called «i formal ( o li erary) lexico » – oral colloquial lexico which if i is used ou side of sphere of i formal dialogue of people, crea es comic or iro ical effec . he colloquial lexico , as well as book, i i formal dialogue ca be commo , reduced (popular speech) a d o exis as social dialec s. Social dialec s as L. S avi ska rebukes, i is he versio of la guage used as mea s of dialogue be wee people, he co ec ed close social or professio al ge erali y, i.e. i is la guage of he cer ai social group. Co siderable he fac or which causes occurre ce of social dialec s is social he eroge ei y of a socie y which has various professio al, a d also ce ury groups. he reaso of occurre ce of social dialec s ca be a d social-class he eroge ei y of a socie y . he mos co ve ie i opi io S avi ska, here is such ermi ological – co cep ual paradigm «social dialec s»: jargo , professio al jargo , sla g, o orma ive lexico .

A d au hors of he illus ra ed dic io ary America sla g M. Moskov sev a d S. Shevche ko i he defi i io of i formal lexico , excep for sla g a d o orma ive lexico , i cludi g he mos rough a d vulgar words a d expressio s, alloca e also euphemisms . Popular speech, or he reduced ( o orma ive) lexico , charac eris ic for i formal co versa io , i cludes i sul i g, humilia i g or swear words, a d is mai ly used i i formal dialogue. I be ra her rela ive covers for sla g a d sla gs, a d he grea er a e io co ce ra es o vulgarisms a d deprecia e o lexico . he use such gives a layer of lexico speech of iro ical ess a d expressive ess, a d rece ly s ar s o pe e ra e more a d more o publicis , hough a d o o a semi-official orga . Wi hou k owledge of i o a layer of lexico , o a idea of Ce ury. Devki ’s, a i ves iga ed foreig la guage o do wi hou very hardly. his lexico represe s powerful e ough, absolu e i egral par of a lexico . Acquai a ce o i ecessary – o u ders a d daily la guage o seize he impor a par regio al geography o be able o decipher implied se se, wi y expressio s, he associa ive pla of s a eme s wha he good ra sla or who aspires o pull oge her he reader o he au hor maximum ca o do wi hou . herefore, very much freque ly duri g ra sla io of a y li erary work, a film, e c., havi g faced such foreig a alogues, before he ra sla or here is a ques io : how o ra sfer his or ha word? How o recrea e ha or o her expressio ? I fac , i mos cases, he li eral ra sla io does o fi d exac display i la guage o which ra sla io is carried ou . A d usual omissio or u jus ified mi iga io vulgarisms, sla gy words, or heir replaceme euphemisms very much freque ly damages ra sla io hrough discrepa cy of ra sfer of mood, emo io s of he hero, o s yle of he au hor. herefore, we adhere o idea which i is possible a d some imes i is ecessary o shif he au hor's uses of such lexemes adequa ely. he li guis – ra sla or who deals wi h la guage i all i s real varie y, ca o shu eyes o ha objec ively exis s. Which u adop ed his lexico would o be, i is a d dema ds o i self a e io . A y here e words which ca o be used i he cul ural socie y, k ow o everyo e a d heir ig ora ce ca lead o o serious fu y hi gs. o receive he a swer o he ques io s, he ra sla or should be guided by he cer ai posi io s; here should be he cer ai scie ific works devo ed o a heme of ra sla io sla gy a d i formal lexico (i cludi g), he cer ai parallel be wee such lexico i la guage of he origi al a d i la guage o which ra sla io is carried ou should be abusive. I sufficie amou of he works devo ed o his heme, abse ce of he i forma io i moder bili gual dic io aries abou si ua io s of he use of correspo di g lexico which i a y measure complica es work of professio al ra sla ors, a d натолкнула us o a idea o i ves iga e his of a layer of lexico , his{i s} adequa e reproduc io i ra sla io i o he Ukrai ia la guage. If o base o classical li erary works, i is possible o ell, ha i he Ukrai ia la guage here is o, so o say, «dir y a swear word». o ell he ru h, i a program fragme from «E eida» we read I.

Ko ljarevskogo: « bu malicious Yu o a, he daugh er of bi ch » . he desig a ed lexeme fixes « he Dic io ary of he Ukrai ia la guage» wi h a mark «abusive». I gives us he basis o o co sider similar words «dir y a swear word» hough i such co ex hey have s ro g emo io al pai i g. As o he prese he sla gy a d o orma ive lexico , eve more of e appears i li erary works of you g Ukrai ia wri ers, such as Oksa a Zabuzhko, Jury A druhovich, Ire a Karpa where we ca fi d ra her realis ic reproduc io of a alive spoke la guage. Probably, i hem here are hose words a d expressio s which are perceived as «dir y a swear word», bu here is o ye a u equivocal es ima io of cri ics a d public idea i his occasio . he give lexico ca serve for emo io al discharge. Expa sio of sphere of ac io of a sla g, a sla g a d o orma ive lexico , heir aggressive u iversal dis ribu io should o o ly cause a xie y apologis morals bu also as he phe ome o mass, i should predispose o i self a e io of li guis s, cul urologis s, sociologis s. ha is i la guage, should be collec ed a d described. I is impossible o objec objec ively available! he ask – o explai i . I E glish here are li guis ic works which shi e his heme i differe aspec s. So, k ow works of such leadi g li guis s, as Richard A. Spiers « he Dic io ary America sla g», S irli g Joh so «E glish as a Seco d F cki g La guage», S efa Marder «Addi io al Russia -E glish he Dic io ary», Harold Ue uor a d S uard Fleks er «Dic io ary of America Sla g», e c. O a ma erial of he Ukrai ia la guage li guis s of I s i u e of he Ukrai ia la guage were e gaged i i his heme. O. Po eb i. his lexico o lexicographic a level G. Sagach i work «i ves iga ed Emo io al suffixes of ou s i moder Ukrai ia la guage». Lesya S avi ska i he mo ography of cha ges he Ukrai ia la guage « he Sla g, a sla g. «Social differe ia io he Ukrai ia la guage» rea s he basic jargo (crimi al, you h, professio al sla gs) as phe ome a, which s ruc ure la guage pic ures of he world. I work is showe fu c io i g of he Ukrai ia colloquial lexico a d a io al – la guage aspec s moder usi g of sla g, a d also a role of sla g i a la guage life of he Ukrai ia ci y. hus, he heme of sla g lexico , a d especially o orma ive, abusive lexico a d ype, i E glish a d he more so i he Ukrai ia la guage a prese poorly i ves iga ed, a d i ra sla io al aspec also was o a alyzed a all. I he give work as us research of expressively-emo io al lexico of oral i formal co versa io – i formal lexico which prese ly is o e of he mos i eres i g for research of la guage sys ems of moder li guis ics is offered: argo, jargo , professio al jargo a d sla g. Proceedi g from his, he purpose of he give work is: Upholdi g he assump io , ha i formal (colloquial, o li erary) lexico – he such lexico should co sider i moder k owi g la guage precisely a separa e ca egory. Illumi a io of some he problems co ec ed o exis e ce of such phe ome o as i formal lexico . Researchof classifica io a d fea ure of ra sla io of such lexico . he a alysis of fea ures of he moder E glish li era ure a d publicis ic ex s.

Knowledge of the C programming language will be useful, and familiarity with at least one member of the PIC16F series of microcontrollers will be an advantage. Knowledge of assembly language programming is not required since all the projects in the book are based on the C language. Chapter 1 presents the basic features of microcontrollers, discusses the important topic of numbering systems, and describes how to convert between number bases. Chapter 2 reviews the PIC18F series of microcontrollers and describes various features of these microcontrollers in detail. Chapter 3 provides a short tutorial on the C language and then examines the features of the mikroC compiler. Chapter 4 covers advanced features of the mikroC language. Topics such as built-in functions and libraries are discussed in this chapter with examples. Chapter 5 explores the various software and hardware development tools for the PIC18F series of microcontrollers. Various commercially available development kits as well as development tools such as simulators, emulators, and in-circuit debuggers are described with examples

1. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

2. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

3. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

4. The fastest computers of the world

5. The fastest computers of the world

6. The basical macroeconomics indicators
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7. The dark side of the moon
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8. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language
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9. The United States of America

10. The United States Of America

11. The United States of America

12. The political system of Great Britain

13. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

14. Some Difficulties of Translating English Phrasal Verbs into Russian

15. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

16. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

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36. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

37. My modern image of the United States

38. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society
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41. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

42. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

43. The New-York City, Places of interest

44. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

45. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

46. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

47. The Hero of Our Time

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51. Ways of exploring the world

52. The role of art in our life

53. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

54. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)
55. Protection of Information (Защита Информации)
56. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

57. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

58. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

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61. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

62. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

63. The practice of modern medicine

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65. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

66. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

67. London - the capital of Great Britain

68. What type of toys do the kids prefer nowadays?

69. Culture of the youth

70. The 8th of March
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71. Discovery of the New World
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72. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University
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73. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

74. The commonwealth of Australia

75. The Commonwealth of Australia

76. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

77. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?

78. Washington is the capital of the USA

79. Flora and Fauna of the USA

80. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

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81. The cities of USA

82. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

83. Art of the Edo Period

84. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century

85. Category of number of the noun

86. Historical Background of the Middle English Period
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87. Lexicology of the English Language
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88. Survival of the Welsh Language
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89. The House of Yorks

90. The declaration of independence

91. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

92. The war of the roses

93. The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II

94. The Future of American Youths

95. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

96. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

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97. Prominent People of the Belarus

98. The making of the collection

99. Some problems of the russian spelling


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