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The Medieval Tower: A refuge and a base for royal power

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Оригинальный светильник - ночник - проектор. Корпус поворачивается от руки. Источник света: 1) Лампочка (от карманных фонариков) 2) Три
330 руб
Раздел: Ночники
Брелок LED "Лампочка" классическая.
Брелок работает в двух автоматических режимах и горит в разных цветовых гаммах. Материал: металл, акрил. Для работы нужны 3 батарейки
131 руб
Раздел: Металлические брелоки

Whe Richard he Lio hear (1189-99) came o he hro e he depar ed o a crusade o he Holy La d leavi g his Cha cellor, William Lo gchamp, Bishop of Ely, i charge of he ki gdom. Lo gchamp soo embarked o a e largeme a d s re g he i g of he ower of Lo do , he firs of a series of buildi g campaig s which by abou 1350 had crea ed he basic form of he grea for ress ha we k ow oday. he jus ifica io for he vas expe di ure a d effor his i volved was he poli ical i s abili y of he ki gdom a d he Crow ’s co i ui g eed for a impreg able for ress i he Ci y of Lo do . Lo gchamp’s works doubled he area covered by he for ress by diggi g a ew a d deeper di ch o he or h a d eas a d buildi g sec io s of cur ai wall, rei forced by a ew ower ( ow k ow as he Bell ower) a he sou h-wes cor er. he di ch was i e ded o flood a urally from he river, al hough his was o a success. hese ew defe ces were soo pu o he es whe he Ki g’s bro her, Joh , aki g adva age of Richard’s cap ivi y i Germa y, challe ged Lo gchamp’s au hori y a d besieged him a he ower. Lack of provisio s forced Lo gchamp o surre der bu he ower’s defe ces had proved ha hey could resis a ack. he reig of he ex ki g Joh (1199-1216) saw li le ew buildi g work a he ower, bu he Ki g made good use of he accommoda io here. Like Lo gchamp, Joh had o cope wi h freque opposi io hroughou his reig . O ly a year af er sig i g a agreeme wi h his baro s i 1215 ( he Mag a Car a) hey were o ce more a loggerheads a d Pri ce Louis of Fra ce had lau ched a i vasio of E gla d wi h he suppor of some of Joh ’s leadi g baro s. I he mids of his defe ce of he ki gdom, Joh died of dyse ery a d his so , He ry III, was crow ed. Wi h E gla d a war wi h Fra ce, he s ar of Ki g He ry’s lo g reig (1216-72) could have hardly bee less auspicious, bu wi hi seve mo hs of his accessio he Fre ch had bee defea ed a he ba le of Li col a d he busi ess of securi g he ki gdom could begi . Rei forceme of he royal cas les played a major role i his, a d his work a he ower of Lo do was more ex e sive ha a ywhere o her ha a Wi dsor Cas le. He ry III was o ly e years old i 1216, bu his rege s bega a major ex e sio of he royal accommoda io i he e closure which formed he I mos Ward as we k ow i oday. he grea hall a d ki che , da i g from he previous ce ury, were improved a d wo owers buil o he wa erfro , he Wakefield ower as he Ki g’s lodgi gs a d he La hor ower (rebuil i he 19 h ce ury), probably i e ded as he quee ’s lodgi gs. A ew wall was also buil e closi g he wes side of he I mos Ward. By he mid 1230s, He ry III had ru i o rouble wi h his baro s a d opposi io flared up i bo h 1236 a d i 1238. O bo h occasio s he Ki g fled o he ower of Lo do . Bu as he shel ered i he cas le i March 1238 he weak ess of he ower mus have bee brough home o him; he defe ces o he eas er , wes er a d or her sides co sis ed o ly of a emp y moa , s re ches of pa ched-up a d s re g he ed Roma wall a d a few le g hs of wall buil by Lo gchamp i he previous ce ury. ha year, herefore, saw he lau ch of He ry’s mos ambi ious buildi g programme a he ower, he co s ruc io of a grea ew cur ai wall rou d he eas , or h a d wes sides of he cas le a a cos of over Ј5,000.

he ew wall doubled he area covered by he for ress, e closi g he eighbouri g church of S Pe er ad Vi cula. I was surrou ded by a moa , his ime successfully flooded by a Flemish e gi eer, Joh Le Fosser. he wall was rei forced by i e ew owers, he s ro ges a he cor ers ( he Sal , Mar i a d Devereux). Of hese all bu wo ( he Fli a d Brick) are much as origi ally buil . his massive ex e sio o he ower was viewed wi h ex reme suspicio a d hos ili y by he people of Lo do , who righ ly recog ised i as a fur her asser io of royal au hori y. A co emporary wri er repor s heir deligh whe a sec io of ewly-buil wall a d a ga eway o he si e of he Beauchamp ower collapsed, eve s hey a ribu ed o heir ow guardia sai , homas а Becke . Archaeological excava io be wee 1995 a d 1997 revealed he remai s of o e of hese collasped buildi gs. I 1272 Ki g Edward I (1272-1307) came o he hro e de ermi ed o comple e he defe sive works begu by his fa her a d ex e d hem as a mea s of fur her emphasisi g royal au hori y over Lo do . Be wee 1275 a d 1285 he Ki g spe over Ј21,000 o he for ress crea i g E gla d’s larges a d s ro ges co ce ric cas le (a cas le wi h o e li e of defe ces wi hi a o her). he work i cluded buildi g he exis i g Beauchamp ower, bu he mai effor was co ce ra ed o filli g i He ry III’s moa a d crea i g a addi io al cur ai wall o he wes er , or her a d eas er side, a d surrou di g i by a ew moa . his wall e closed he exis i g cur ai wall buil by He ry III a d was pierced by wo ew e ra ces, o e from he la d o he wes , passi g hrough he Middle a d Byward owers, a d a o her u der S homas’s ower, from he river. ew royal lodgi gs were i cluded i he upper par of S homas’s ower. Almos all hese buildi gs survive i some form oday. Despi e all his work Edward was a very rare visi or o his for ress; he was, i fac , o ly able o e joy his ew lodgi gs here for a few days. here is o doub hough ha if he had bee a weaker ki g, a d had o pu up wi h disorders i Lo do of he ki d experie ced by his fa her a d gra dfa her, he ower would have come i o i s ow as a eve more effec ive a d efficie base for royal au hori y. Ki g Edward’s ew works were, however, pu o he es by his so Edward II (1307-27), whose reig saw a resurge ce of disco e amo g he baro s o a scale o see si ce he reig of his gra dfa her. O ce agai he ower played a crucial role i he a emp o mai ai royal au hori y a d as a royal refuge. Edward II did li le more ha improve he walls pu up by his fa her, bu he was a regular reside duri g his urbule reig a d he moved his ow lodgi gs from he Wakefield ower a d S homas’s ower o he area rou d he prese La hor ower. he old royal lodgi gs were ow used for his cour iers a d for he s orage of official papers by he Ki g’s Wardrobe (a depar me of gover me which deal wi h royal supplies). he use of he ower for fu c io s o her ha mili ary a d reside ial had bee s ar ed by Edward I who pu up a large ew buildi g o house he Royal Mi a d bega o use he cas le as a place for s ori g records. As early as he reig of He ry III he cas le had already bee i regular use as a priso : Huber de Burgh, Chief Jus iciar of E gla d was i carcera ed i 1232 a d he Welsh Pri ce Gruffydd was impriso ed here be wee 1241 a d 1244, whe he fell o his dea h i a bid o escape.

he ower also served as a reasury ( he Crow Jewels were moved from Wes mi s er Abbey o he ower i 1303) a d as a showplace for he Ki g’s a imals. Af er he u s able reig of Edward II came ha of Edward III (1327-77). Edward III’s works a he ower were fairly mi or, bu he did pu up a ew ga ehouse be wee he La hor ower a d he Sal ower, oge her wi h he Cradle ower a d i s pos er (a small subsidiary e ra ce), a fur her pos er behi d he Byward ower a d a o her a he Develi ower. He was also respo sible for rebuildi g he upper par s of he Bloody ower a d crea i g he vaul over he ga e passage, bu his mos subs a ial achieveme was o ex e d he ower Wharf eas wards as far as S homas’s ower. his was comple ed i i s prese form by his successor Richard II (1377-99).

Of those advances—in paper, movable type, metallurgy, presses, inks, and scripts—paper and the idea of movable type reached Europe from China. Gutenberg's development of typecasting from metal dies, to overcome the potentially fatal problem of nonuniform type size, depended on many metallurgical developments: steel for letter punches, brass or bronze alloys (later replaced by steel) for dies, lead for molds, and a tin-zinc-lead alloy for type. Gutenberg's press was derived from screw presses in use for making wine and olive oil, while his ink was an oil-based improvement on existing inks. The alphabetic scripts that medieval Europe inherited from three millennia of alphabet development lent themselves to printing with movable type, because only a few dozen letter forms had to be cast, as opposed to the thousands of signs required for Chinese writing. In all six respects, the maker of the Phaistos disk had access to much less powerful technologies to combine into a printing system than did Gutenberg. The disk's writing medium was clay, which is much bulkier 2. 6 O •GUNS,GERMS, AND STEEL and heavier than paper

1. The Tower in Tudor Times: A royal prison

2. American Revolution and War for Independence

3. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

4. Melville’s “The March into Virginia” and “The College Colonel”: The Broken Youth.

5. Summary on the subject: Gender Issues and Hopewell Culture

6. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.
The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.
7. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation
Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation
8. The Tower of London
The Tower of London

9. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

10. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

11. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

12. Rome and the Roman Empire

13. Substance abuse: Alcohol Consumption and alcohol dependence among the youth (Социологическое исследование проблемы алкоголизма среди студентов)

14. The Irish and South America

15. The Tower of London

16. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

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Кукла "Принцесса Золушка" с развевающейся юбкой.
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Раздел: Золушка
Набор детской складной мебели Ника "Азбука" (КУ2).
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Раздел: Наборы детской мебели

17. The Tower of London

18. The history of Old English and its development

19. Entertainment outside the home: Pubs and clubs Leisure and sports

20. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

21. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

22. Rome and the Roman Empire
Rome and the Roman Empire
23. Символ и таинство в богословии св. Максима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)
24. Russia and the international economy
Russia and the international economy

25. Huey Lewis and the News

26. The Value Based Leadership Theory

27. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

28. The Future: A Must for Our World Community

29. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

30. Flora and Fauna of the USA

31. Judaism and the Jewish People

32. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

Ручка перьевая "Velvet Prestige", синяя, 0,8 мм, корпус черный/золото.
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Раздел: VIP-ручки
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Раздел: Более 24 цветов

33. Ireland and the Continent

34. Task for the laboratory work

35. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

36. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

37. The USA: its history, geography and political system

38. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks
A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks
39. My plans for the future
My plans for the future
40. For the Beauty of the Earth
For the Beauty of the Earth

41. The Sound and the Fury

42. The Tower: The 20th Century

43. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

44. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

45. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

46. Incorporation of [2,3,4,5,6-2H5]Phenylalanine, [3,5-2H2]Tyrosine, and [2,4,5,6,7-2H5]Tryptophan into the Bacteriorhodopsin Molecule of Halobacterium halobium

47. Changes and specimens of the English language

48. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

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Раздел: Игры на ловкость
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Раздел: Игры на ловкость
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Электронный озвученный плакат "Английский язык" предназначен для детей и взрослых, начинающих изучать английский язык.
794 руб
Раздел: Электронные и звуковые плакаты

49. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

50. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

51. The origin and history of the English language

52. The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition

53. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

54. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development
The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development
55. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages
56. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

57. Ghandi and the myth of non-violent action

58. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

59. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

60. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.

61. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

62. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

63. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

64. Countries and cities

Средство для сантехники "Cillit", от налета и ржавчины, спрей, 450 мл, 2 штуки.
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Раздел: Для сантехники
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Раздел: Формата А4 и меньше
Батут.
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Раздел: Батуты, надувные центры

65. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

66. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

67. School Reform: Pros and Cons

68. The Church of England

69. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

70. The history of railways (История железных дорог)
71. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide
Economic and sociological analysis of suicide
72. Personnel selection and choice
Personnel selection and choice

73. The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind

74. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

75. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

76. Epistemology and methodology: main trends and ends. (Эпистемология и Методология)

77. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

78. Knowledge, Innovation and Development

79. My modern image of the United States

80. Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?

Подгузники-трусики для мальчиков Huggies DryNights, 8-15 лет, 9 штук.
Деликатная защита на всю ночь для детей от 4х лет, страдающих энурезом. Одноразовые Трусики Хаггис Драйнайтс для мальчиков 8-15 лет (30-57
468 руб
Раздел: Обычные
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Диаметр: 250 мм. Масштаб: 1:50000000. Материал подставки: пластик. Цвет подставки: прозрачный. Мощность: 220 V, переключатель на шнуре;
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Раздел: Глобусы
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658 руб
Раздел: Более 24 цветов

81. The Archangel Cathedral

82. The capturing

83. The cinema in Russia today

84. The fastest computers of the world

85. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

86. The People Trade
The People Trade
87. The Renaissance
The Renaissance
88. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Экономика США после 11-ого сентября. Снижение или Быстрый Рост?)

89. Список мирового наследия (The World Heritage List, на английском языке)

90. Ten reasons for a tradition of modernity

91. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

92. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

93. The Economy of Great Britain

94. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

95. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

96. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

Картриджи чернильные "Cartridge Quink", синие, 5 штук.
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Раздел: Чернила, тушь, штемпель
Дополнительный набор "Что мне надеть".
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323 руб
Раздел: Игры на магнитах
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Раздел: Сопутствующие товары для пазлов

97. The New-York City, Places of interest

98. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries

99. Countries and cities


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