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Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

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I roduc io As his work is devo ed o he subjec s of s ylis ic pho e ics, impleme ed by Percy Bysshe Shelley i his works, firs he defi i io s of pho e ics a d s ylis ics, as well as s ylis ic pho e ics o he whole should be give . he li guis ic scie ce s udies la guage from hree differe poi s of view: lexicology, grammar a d pho e ics. Lexicology deals wi h he vocabulary of la guage, wi h he origi a d developme of words, wi h heir mea i g a d word buildi g. Grammar defi es he rules gover i g he modifica io of words a d he combi a io of words i o se e ces. Accordi g o he mai subjec of his work, i is impor a o give more de ailed i forma io abou pho e ics i self a d wha i s udies. Pho e ics is he scie ce ha s udies he sou d ma er of he la guage, i s sema ic fu c io s a d he li es of developme . I is he pro u cia io of huma sou ds i he process of he commu ica io , «huma oises» by which he hough is ac ualized, he a ure of hese oises, he combi a io a d he fu c io s i heir rela io o he mea i g (i o a io a d s ress). Pho e ics also deals wi h speech sou ds. I Greek pho e ikos is a mea s per ai i g o voice a d sou d. he pho e icia s i ves iga e sou ds as he pho emes (smalles u i s of la guage) a d heir allopho es, he syllabic s ruc ure, he dis ribu io of s ress a d i o a io . hey are i eres ed i he sou ds ha are produced by he huma speech-orga s i sofar as hese sou ds have a role i a la guage. his limi ed ra ge of sou ds is referred as he pho ic medium a d i dividual sou ds wi hi ha ra ge are referred as speech sou ds. So, pho e ics ca be also defi ed as he s udy of he pho ic medium – he way huma s make, ra smi , a d receive speech sou ds. Pho e ics occupies i self wi h he s udy of he ways i which he sou ds are orga ized i o a sys em of u i s a d he varia io of he u i s i all ypes a d s yles of spoke la guage. Pho e ics is a basic bra ch of li guis ics. ei her li guis ic heory or li guis ic prac ice ca do wi hou pho e ics. o ki d of li guis ic s udy ca be made wi hou co s a co sidera io of he ma erial o he expressio level. As his work is devo ed o he subjec s of s ylis ic pho e ics a d i has bee said abou pho e ics i ge eral, a e io should be paid o s ylis ics i ge eral a d he he subjec s of s ylis ic pho e ics should be defi ed. S ylis ics is o equal o li guis ics scie ce, such as lexicology, morphology, sy ax a d pho e ics, because hey are level discipli es as hey rea o ly o e li guis ic level, a d s ylis ics i ves iga es he ques io s o all he levels a d differe aspec s of he ex s i ge eral. he Fre ch li guis E. Be ve is e used he word ‘level’ o charac erize he hierarchical s ruc ure of la guage. S ylis ics ca be defi ed as a bra ch of moder li guis ics devo ed o he de ailed a alysis of li erary s yle, or of he li guis ic choices made by speakers a d wri ers i o -li erary co ex s. Accordi g o he Russia li guis I.R. Galperi , s ylis ics is a bra ch of ge eral li guis ics, which deals wi h he i ves iga io of wo i depe de asks: S ylis ics s udies he special media of la guage which are called s ylis ic devices a d expressive mea s.

S ylis ics s udies he ypes of ex s which are dis i guished by he pragma ic aspec of he commu ica io a d are called fu c io al s yles of la guage. S ylis ics mus be subdivided i o separa e, i depe de bra ches – s ylis ic morphology, s ylis ic lexicology, s ylis ic sy ax, s ylis ic pho e ics. Wha ever level we ake, s ylis ics describes o wha is i commo use, bu wha is specific use, i his or ha respec , wha differe ia es o e subla guage from o hers. Ge eral ( o -s ylis ic) morphology rea s morphemes a d gramma ical mea i gs expressed by hem i la guage i ge eral, wi hou regard o heir s ylis ic value. S ylis ic morphology is i eres ed i gramma ical forms a d gramma ical mea i gs ha are peculiar o par icular subla guages, explici y or implici y compari g hem wi h he eu ral o es commo o all he subla guages. Lexicology deals wi h s ylis ic classifica io (differe ia io ) of he vocabulary ha form a par of s ylis ics. I s ylis ic lexicology each u i is s udied separa ely, i s ead of as a whole ex (group of words, word classifica io ).Ge eral sy ax rea s word combi a io s a d se e ces, a alyzi g heir s ruc ures a d s a i g wha is permissible a d wha is i admissible i co s ruc i g correc u era ces i he give la guage. S ylis ic sy ax shows wha par icular co s ruc io s are me wi h i various ypes of speech, wha sy ac ical s ruc ures are s yle formi g (specific) i he subla guages i ques io . As i was already me io ed, ge eral ( o -s ylis ic) pho e ics i ves iga es he whole ar icula ory – audial sys em of la guage. S ylis ic pho e ics describes varia s of pro u cia io occuri g i differe ypes of speech; special a e io is also paid o prosodic fea ures of prose a d poe ry. U for u a ely, here is o adequa e defi i io of s ylis ic pho e ics, al hough ma y well-k ow li guis s, who devo ed heir works o he s udy of s ylis ics, amo g hem I.R. Galperi , V.M. Zhirmu sky, L. Bloomfield, Yu. Skreb ev, I. Ar old always paid special a e io o i , u derli i g i s mea i g for he s yle-formi g pho e ic fea ures. he works of he me io ed above li guis s will be also used for he a alysis i his work. As here he subjec s of s ylis ic pho e ics are goi g o be i ves iga ed, i should be ecessary o me io pho e ic expressive mea s a d s ylis ic devices. Pho e ic expressive mea s i clude: I o a io which is a complex u i y of o -segme al fea ures of speech, such as melody or pi ch of he voice, s ress, pausa io a d differe emporal charac eris ic. Se e ce s ress which is a grea er promi e ce of words. Pi ch of he voice which represe s he fu dame al freque cy of a speech sou d a d is closely co ec ed wi h he se e ce s ress. Here whisperi g, pauses, si gi g a d o her ways of huma voice usi g are referred. o he pho e ic s ylis ic devices, he more de ailed descrip io s of which will give be give i he mai par of his work, we refer: O oma opoeia, or sou d imi a io , is he use of words or word combi a io s ha imi a e some a ural sou d. Alli era io , is he use of he similar i i ial sou ds i close successio , aimi g a impar i g a melodic effec o he u era ce. Rhy hm, is a flow, moveme , procedure, e c.,

charac erized by basically regular recurre ce of eleme s or fea ures Rhyme, is he repe i io of ide ical or similar ermi al sou d combi a io s of words. he poem, ha was chose for he a alysis, a d for i ves iga io of he give above pho e ic expressive mea s a d s ylis ic devices o i s example is « o he Me of E gla d» by Persy Bisshe Shelley. For closer i ves iga io of he poi s of s ylis ic pho e ics here also will be give examples of works of some o her au hors. 1. heore ical par 1.1 Galperi a d o her li guis s’ poi s of view o s ylis ic pho e ics he subjec of s ylis ics ca be ou li ed as he s udy of he a ure, fu c io s a d s ruc ure of s ylis ic devices, o he o e ha d, a d, o he o her, he s udy of each s yle of la guage as classified above, i. e. i s aim, i s s ruc ure, i s charac eris ic fea ures a d he effec i produces, as well as i s i errela io wi h o her s yles of la guage. So, i ’s ecessary o make a a emp o si gle ou such, problems as are ypically s ylis ic a d ca o be rea ed i a y o her bra ch of li guis ic scie ce. he s ylis ic approach o he u era ce is o co fi ed o i s s ruc ure a d se se, here is a o her hi g o be ake i o accou which, i a cer ai ype of commu ica io , viz. belles-le res, plays a impor a role. his is he way a word, a phrase or a se e ce sou ds. he sou d of mos words ake separa ely will have li le or o aes he ic value. I is i combi a io wi h o her words ha a word may acquire a desired pho e ic effec , he way a separa e word sou ds may produce a cer ai eupho ic impressio , bu his is a ma er of i dividual percep io a d feeli g a d herefore subjec ive. For i s a ce, a cer ai E glish wri er expresses he opi io ha a gi a , a d uvula would make beau iful girl's ames i s ead of wha he calls «lumps of ames like Joa , Joyce a d Maud». I he poem «Cargoes» by Joh Masefield he co siders words like ivory, sa dal-wood, cedar-wood, emeralds a d ame hys s as used i he firs wo s a zas o be beau iful, whereas hose i he 3rd s a za «s rike harshly o he ear!» «Wi h a cargo of y e coal, Road-rails, pig-lead, Fire-wood, iro -ware a d cheap i rays.» As o e poe has i , his is» a combi a io of words which is difficul o pro ou ce, i which he words rub agai s o e a o her, i erfere wi h o e a o her, push o e a o her.» Verier, a Fre ch scie is , who is a specialis o E glish versifica io , sugges s ha we should ry o pro ou ce he vowels i a s ro gly ar icula ed ma er a d wi h closed eyes. If we do so, he says, we are sure o come o he co clusio ha each of hese sou ds expresses a defi i e feeli g or s a e of mi d. hus he mai ai s ha he sou d produces he feeli g of joy a d so o . L. Bloomfield, a well-k ow America li guis says: « i huma speech, differe sou ds have differe mea i g. o s udy he coordi a io of cer ai sou ds wi h cer ai mea i gs is o s udy la guage.» A i eres i g s a eme i his regard is made by a Hu garia li guis , Iva Fo agy: « he grea sema ic e ropy (a erm from heory of commu ica io de o i g he measure of he u k ow .) of poe ic la guage s a ds i co ras o he predic abili y of i s sou ds. Of course, o eve i he case of poe ry ca we de ermi e he sou d of a word o he basis of i s mea i g.

But in practice a good profiler may do more to improve the speed of actual programs written in the language than a compiler that generates fast code. Here, again, language designers are somewhat out of touch with their users. They do a really good job of solving slightly the wrong problem. It might be a good idea to have an active profiler-- to push performance data to the programmer instead of waiting for him to come asking for it. For example, the editor could display bottlenecks in red when the programmer edits the source code. Another approach would be to somehow represent what's happening in running programs. This would be an especially big win in server-based applications, where you have lots of running programs to look at. An active profiler could show graphically what's happening in memory as a program's running, or even make sounds that tell what's happening. Sound is a good cue to problems. In one place I worked, we had a big board of dials showing what was happening to our web servers. The hands were moved by little servomotors that made a slight noise when they turned

1. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

2. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

3. The Queen of the UK

4. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

5. The uniqueness of the British

6. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism
7. The pride of the nation
The pride of the nation
8. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb
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9. The war of the roses

10. For the Beauty of the Earth

11. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

12. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

13. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

14. The marking of the Russian Revolution

15. The outline of the period

16. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

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17. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

18. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

19. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

20. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

21. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

22. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)
23. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)
24. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms
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25. The Tower of London

26. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

27. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

28. The Church of England

29. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

30. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

31. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

32. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

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33. The Castles of England

34. The role of art in our life

35. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

36. The Economy of Great Britain

37. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

38. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)
39. The Tower of London
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40. The Hero of Our Time
The Hero of Our Time

41. The house of my dream

42. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

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44. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

45. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

46. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

47. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

48. The profile of an effective manager

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49. The history of Australia

50. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

51. The teaching of Hugo Gratius

52. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

53. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

54. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)
55. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
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56. The History of Moscow
The History of Moscow

57. Culture of the youth

58. The 8th of March

59. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

60. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

61. The commonwealth of Australia

62. The Commonwealth of Australia

63. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

64. The climate of Great Britain

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65. The sights of USA.

66. The constitution of Ukraine

67. The history of Christmas

68. Art of the Edo Period

69. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

70. Category of number of the noun
Category of number of the noun
71. Historical Background of the Middle English Period
Historical Background of the Middle English Period
72. Lexicology of the English Language
Lexicology of the English Language

73. Survival of the Welsh Language

74. The House of Yorks

75. The declaration of independence

76. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

77. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

78. The Future of American Youths

79. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

80. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

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81. Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)

82. Some problems of the russian spelling

83. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

84. The Grapes of Wrath

85. Valley of the Kings

86. Establishment of the Federal judicial system
Establishment of the Federal judicial system
87. The Formation of Youth Subcultures
The Formation of Youth Subcultures
88. Second period of the Renaissance.
Second period of the Renaissance.

89. Relief of the UK

90. Population of the UK

91. The art of conversation

92. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

93. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

94. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

95. Algorithmic recognition of the Verb

96. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

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97. The production of 2H-labeled amino acids by a new mutant of RuMP fucultative methylotroph Вrevibacterium methylicum

98. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

99. Changes and specimens of the English language


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