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The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

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Essay i Cul ural S udies he Par icipa io of America a d Bri ish You h i Poli ical Life of heir Cou ries. Mi sk 2008 Co e 1. I roduc io 3 2. Poli ical apa hy amo g he you h 4 3. Par icipa io i preside ial a d parliame ary elec io s 7 4. Co clusio 15 5. Refere ces 16 I roduc io Poli ics is a i egral par of our life. A d i really does ’ ma er whe her you are a poli icia by professio or a plumber who is far from world of poli ics. Ac ually you may o be i eres ed i poli ics bu poli ics s ill will be i eres ed i you. he fac is ha every perso above 18 years old bo h i our cou ry a d i Grea Bri ai a d he USA from he poli icia ’s poi of view is regarded as a vo er, his po e ial suppor er. ha ’s why he par icipa io of all he people of he cou ry is so esse ial a d of grea impor a ce for poli icia s. U for u a ely for hem he la es public opi io polls showed poli ical apa hy amo g he you g people. he sociologis s say ha he you h is simply o i eres ed i poli ical life of heir cou ry. he aim of my work was o fi d ou he reaso s for such apa he ic a i ude. Besides ha I ried o compare he si ua io i Grea Bri ai a d he USA i order o fi d ou whe her his e de cy is ge eral for all moder you g people. While worki g o his opic I’ve a alysed he resul s of several public opi io polls made i Bri ai a d he USA, a lo of ewspaper ar icles, ews ar icles o he web-si es of BBC a d C a d he comme s of he you g people judgi g his problem. I’ve fou d ou ha he si ua io is o so simple a d o so defi i e as i seemed o me i he very begi i g. Poli ical apa hy amo g he you h Duri g he elec io campaig poli icia s mobilize all heir forces a d possibili ies. hey are really figh i g for vo ers. Accordi g o he co s i u io s of he USA, accordi g o he Bri ish law as well, all ci ize s of bo h sexes over 18 years of age have a righ of vo i g. Bu i reali y o all he people exercise his lawful righ . he surveys show ha he major par of hose who do ’ vo e is he people from 18 o 25. ha ’s why i ’s so impor a for poli icia s o provoke i eres o poli ics amo g he you h. he rece research co firms poli ical apa hy or a se se of poli ical alie a io amo g he you g, i says ha hey are o i eres ed i poli ics, do ’ wa o par icipa e i poli ical life a d do ' bo her abou a y poli ical problems of heir cou ry. o moder you hs, poli ics a d s a esma ship are hi gs bes lef o he ge era io ahead or behi d, or o professio al poli icia s a d he ewspapers. Co ve io al media wisdom i sis s you g people are simply o i eres ed i poli ics. Popular images of you h Ч causi g mayhem, lacki g discipli e, escapi g respo sibili ies Ч sugges you g people are far oo busy o e gage wi h poli ics. O e of he surveys a alyzed he major i eres s a d leisure ac ivi ies of oday’s America you h. hese are he resul s: 99%: elevisio 98% Music 89% Compu ers 4%: Poli ics aki g i o co sidera io hese fac s we ca ’ bu agree ha he you h do ’ rea poli ics seriously. he lack of i eres is ra her obvious, bu i ’s o as simple as i seems o be. he &quo ;apa he ic you h of oday&quo ; headli es are a domi a media frame used o explai widespread poli ical dise gageme a d decli i g levels of vo i g.

o y Bresli , head of he Ci ize ship Fou da io which promo es par icipa io i Bri ish life, ried o comme o hese resul s. He has a differe poi of view ha he above me io ed. He said he survey deal wi h o e of he mos freque false assump io s abou he you g - ha hey do ' care. &quo ;We ake his lack of i eres i poli ics as a lack of i eres i socie y,&quo ; said Mr Bresli . &quo ;Bu wha we e d o fi d is ha you g people lack a i eres i a group of poli ical i s i u io s because hey ca ' see heir releva ce. &quo ;Research shows here's a real defici i k owledge amo g he you g of he poli ical sys em - bu here's a real i eres i si gle issues. his does ' always work hrough o radi io al poli ical cha els.&quo ; Mr Bresli said gover me ambi io s o reco ec you h o i s i u io s eeded far more ha he lip service of he pas - bu he rece i roduc io of ci ize ship o he a io al curriculum was a good s ar . You have o u ders a d he sys em o be able o u ders a d he ews i he firs place. A perso ca fi d ou a fair amou from wha his pare s, bu wha abou he people whose pare s do ' u ders a d i , because heir pare s did ' ei her? he Duke of Edi burgh Award Scheme has published he resul s of i s a io wide survey of you h opi io o help fi d ou wha our fu ure adul s do, say, hi k a d wa . he resul s sugges here is a level of frus ra io amo g ma y of he you g a d a degree of fear for heir ow securi y i a world where all oo of e hey are he o es blamed whe hi gs go wro g. O e of he major hemes emergi g from he research is frus ra io wi h poli ical i s i u io s a d au hori ies. More ha half recog ised he way he cou ry ru s affec s he quali y of heir lives - bu 68% believed he gover me does o lis e o you g people. hree quar ers said i was difficul o make heir views k ow . O ly half of hose i he survey said hey u ders ood how he cou ry is ru , he figure falli g fur her amo g hose from poorer backgrou ds. “You have o u ders a d he sys em o be able o u ders a d he ews i he firs place. Perhaps a regular ar icle or a u orial-like websi e wi h 'begi ers poli ics' is wha we eed?” (Hele Hogg, 17, E gla d) &quo ;Wha we see amo g you g people is ha if hey ge i volved locally i a issue a d if hey are lis e ed o a d share i aki g decisio s, he ha se se of i volveme grows from he local o he a io al,&quo ; said S eve Sharp. &quo ;Bu we have o remember ha he gover me ca ' ell people o be more i eres ed i poli ics, i does ' work ha way.&quo ; Par icipa io i preside ial a d parliame ary elec io s If we wa o fi d ou he ra e of ac ivi y of people i poli ical life of a cou ry we ca look a he umber of vo ers who ake par i parliame ary a d preside ial elec io s. I will be he righ i dica or of ac ivi y. Accordi g o he Bri ish Elec io Survey, o ly 52% of he u der 24s vo ed a he 2001 Ge eral Elec io - some 2.2m people. ha came a year af er research war ed he elevisi g of Parliame was ur i g off a e ire ge era io of ew vo ers. I 2006 i he USA, 650 people aged 18-30 were surveyed. 80 perce said hey were regis ered o vo e, bu he polls ers hi k some of hem were lyi g. Mr. Goeas, a co sul a wi h he Republica arra ce Group predic ed ha o ly 35 perce of hose surveyed would ac ually vo e.

Almos a quar er of he respo de s have li le o o i eres i he elec io , a d a ge der gap is evide , wi h me ge erally expressi g grea er i eres ha wome . Well, he figures speak by hemselves. A o her i dica or of poli ical ac ivi y is he a i ude of a perso o poli ical par ies, whe her he a aches himself o a y par y or o a d why. here was a public opi io poll made i he Ma ches er a d Lo do area he aim of which was o fi d ou how he you g people fel abou par y poli ics. hese are some of he comme s: “ o be ho es I’m o oo bo hered. I do ’ keep up wi h developme s a Wes mi s er . hese days my job, my cash flow a d socialisi g are more impor a !”( om, 28, from Ma ches er) “I ca ’ rela e o a y of he poli icia s. hey all seem fairly similar a d rarely lis e o you g people.” (Fio a, 25, from Lo do ) Of course hese wo comme s ca ’ represe he opi io of all he you h, bu u for u a ely hey represe he opi io of he majori y of bo h Bri ish a d America you h. “You g people oday are ’ i eres ed i poli ics because we hi k i does ’ affec us. I my opi io poli icia s do ' ask our views o issues or co sider our fu ures.” (Ka e, 17, UK) “You g people lack a i eres i a group of poli ical i s i u io s because hey ca ' see heir releva ce” (Joseph, 20, UK) Of course i 's rue ha ma y you g people ake o o ice of he gover me or he cou rys' leaders, bu I'd say ha some fi d i hough provoki g a d ge ui ely fasci a i g. Well, i my opi io he above si ua io e visages us he problem of lack of i forma io . he majori y of he you g people have o idea how hey ca make heir sugges io a d problems be heard. hough here is a solu io a d some of he you g people par icipa e ac ively i resolvi g some very opical for you h ques io s. For example, i he Midla ds here are loads of hi gs ha ca help i volve you g people i poli ics a d help hem voice heir co cer s. he You g People's Parliame , based a Mille ium Poi aims o ge you g people i volved i poli ics. I provides a mee i g place where you g people ca discuss issues, which affec he you h of Birmi gham. he YPP also works o bri g more people i o poli ics hrough projec s such as he Spiri of Birmi gham II. his is a projec aimed o give school childre he cha ce o deba e e hical issues. he YPP orga ises a io al a d i er a io al eve s o allow you g people he cha ce o ge i volved i poli ics. Also ew ech ology has e abled he YPP o joi a ‘global voice’ for you g people from all over he world. his mea s ha you g people here i he Midla ds ca campaig alo g side people from all over he world. his scheme has mea he you g peoples co cer s over homeless ess, drugs, bullyi g, ra spor a d leisure ca be discussed wi h poli icia s or o her decisio makers. here is also he U i ed Ki gdoms You h Parliame (UKYP), which i volves you g people i poli ics. he UKYP’s elec io s have jus ake place o choose five Members of he You h Parliame (MYPs) o represe Birmi gham. he MYP’s will ow mee wi h you g people o fi d ou heir co cer s before discussi g wi h campaig s hey will be worki g o .

The conversational code for tsarism had been ЅАШthe peaceful timeЅАЩ, implying the possibility of return to a natural order. Now the phrase fell out of use: Leningrad had permanently replaced Petersburg. But third, people wanted this Communism to be of a different sort. Having fought, worked and suffered for their country for four years, they felt that they had earned the right to be trusted by its government. They longed for the ordinary decencies of civilised life ЅАФ security, comfort, entertainment ЅАФ but also for freedom to express their opinions, explore the outside world, and genuinely to participate in public life. In the first post-war elections to the Supreme Soviet Leningraders defaced their ballots, scribbling ЅАШWhen are you going to abolish Communist serfdom?ЅАЩ ЅАШGive us bread and then hold electionsЅАЩ; ЅАШDown with hard labour in the factories and collective farmsЅАЩ, or even crossing out the candidateЅАЩs name and writing ЅАШFor Adolf HitlerЅАЩ. ЅАШItЅАЩs humiliatingЅАЩ, an actor at the Aleksandrinka was overheard to exclaim

1. јпокатастасис и "Ѕлагое молчание" в эсхатологии св. ћаксима исповедника (Apokatastasis and ЂHonorable silenceї in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

2. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

3. The role of art in our life

4. The role of art in our life

5. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

6. The City of London and its role as a financial centre
The City of London and its role as a financial centre
7. Internet helps in development of education and democracy
Internet helps in development of education and democracy
8. MelvilleТs УThe March into VirginiaФ and УThe College ColonelФ: The Broken Youth.

9. The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition

10. ѕоиск культурных корней јмериканцев (Looking for cultural roots of Americans)

11. Poland and Hungary are in Transition

12. Problems of city and country life

13. The political system of Great Britain

14. Political System of the USA

15. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

16. Economic system. Changes in economic situation of Russia

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 ажда€ мама знает, насколько важный этап в жизни младенца представл€ет собой прикорм. Ќо как же проблематично скормить хот€ бы ложечку
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17. Euro-Atlantic integration and Ukrainian youth. Opinions and problems

18. Internal diagnostics company, identification of strengths and weaknesses

19. Specificity of sociology and sociological knowledge

20. Significance of translation in contemporary life

21. The Global Money Markets and Money Management

22. Bread in our life
Bread in our life
23. Music in our life
Music in our life
24. Books in My Life
Books in My Life

25. Sports in our life

26. Political system of US

27. Science in our life

28. Music in our life

29. Books in my life

30. Political System of Britain

31. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

32. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

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33. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

34. Survey of the British Geography and Life

35. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

36. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

37. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in УCicer arietinumФ

38. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (—равнение –енессанса и ѕросвещени€)
39. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements
40. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation
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41. ѕредставители –енессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

42. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. ‘.ћ. ƒостоевский, ѕреступление и наказание

43. УThe Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries Ц Facts or a Political Arithmetick?Ф

44. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. ‘.ћ. ƒостоевский, ѕреступление и наказание

45. —имвол и таинство в богословии св. ћаксима исповедника (symbol and mystery in st.Maximus the confessor)

46. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

47. ѕереведенна€ на английский лекци€ по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современна€ банковска€ система)

48. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

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49. Culture of the youth

50. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia

51. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

52. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

53. Flora and Fauna of the USA

54. Grammatical difference between British and American English
Grammatical difference between British and American English
55. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England
Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England
56. The development of computers in the USA
The development of computers in the USA

57. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of PuritanТs Character

58. Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)

59. Some problems of borrowing in the Russian language

60. The Concept of Youth Subcultures

61. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

62. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

63. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

64. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

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„ист€щее средство дл€ кухни "Ўуманит", 400 мл.
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414 руб
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65. Sport and recreation in the United States

66. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

67. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

68. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

69. Sport in different countries of the world

70. The British Character and English Humour
The British Character and English Humour
71. The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French
The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French
72. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms
The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms

73. The Life and Times of Shakespeare

74. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

75. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

76. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

77. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

78. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

79. Advertising in the world of art

80. Formation of group behaviour in the organisations

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81. The Tower of London

82. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

83. Climate and Weather in Great Britain ( лимат и погода в ¬еликобритании)

84. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

85. The Church of England

86. The history of railways (»стори€ железных дорог)
87. Economic and sociological analysis of suicide
Economic and sociological analysis of suicide
88. American Federalism in 1990s
American Federalism in 1990s

89. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курени€)

90. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

91. Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?

92. Russia and the international economy

93. Socionical approach in studding of nations

94. The cinema in Russia today

95. The fastest computers of the world

96. The Irish and Australia

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97. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (ѕословицы - ƒети ќпыта)

98. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

99. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

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