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Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

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MI IS RY OF HIGHER A D SECO DARY SPECIAL EDUCA IO OF HE REPUBLIC OF UZBEKIS A GULIS A S A E U IVERSI Y he E glish a d Li era ure Depar me Qualifica io work o speciali y E glish philology o he heme: “Compara ive A alysis of he Compou d Words” Supervisor: Gulis a 2008 I. I roduc io 1.1 heme ac uali y Af er he I depe de ce was proclaimed he Republic was faced wi h he ecessi y of crea i g ew legisla io correspo di g wi h ew reali ies, wi h he co di io s of I depe de ce a d he Parliame coped wi h his ask, here have bee adop ed ew Laws a d ew Resolu io s For he firs ime i he his ory of our cou ry, here adop ed “ he Law of he Republic of Uzbekis a o Educa io ” a d “ he Law of he Republic of Uzbekis a o he a io al Programme of Perso el rai i g Sys em”. he mai objec ive of all reforms i he field of eco omic policy is he i dividual. herefore he ask of educa io , he ask of risi g up a ew ge era io capable of a io al re aissa ce will remai he preroga ive of he s a e a d co s i u e a priori y. A prese grea impor a ce is a ached o he s udy a d eachi g of foreig la guage. I our rece pas , i mos cases he Russia la guage bu o he mo her o gue served as media or i he s udy of foreig la guages. ha is why i par icular u il he prese , E glish-Uzbek a d Uzbek-E glish Dic io aries had o bee available. ha ’s why i is ecessary o lear a d compare E glish, Germa a d Uzbek lexicology, grammar a d pho e ics. 2. he mai goal of he work is o s udy, compare a d a alyze he compou d words of Uzbek, E glish a d Germa , o classify he compou ds accordi g o morphological a d lexical poi of view. 3. he scie ific decisio of se aims a d purposes will mai ai he easies way for be er lear i g a d u ders a di g Uzbek, E glish a d Germa . 4. he scie ific ovel y of he work. As we k ow, here are ’ e ough ma uals which compared he Uzbek a d he E glish la guages. he ovel y of he work is ha i he work o e ca fi d ew approaches of compari g a d classifyi g he compou ds. 5. he prac ical value Work ca be useful for all who i eres ed i E glish. A he u iversi y i forma io which ake from he work ca be used as a ready – ma erials a he lec ures of Lexicology, S ylis ics, Compara ive ypology. 6. Li era ure overview Basic i forma io of he qualifica io work is give from he ma uals, ar icles, researches of grea scholars such as: by I.V. Ar old A Course i moder E glish Lexicology by R.S. Gi zburg, he E glish Word a d o hers. he i forma io which is ake from I er e si es, World Book E cyclopedia a d ma y o her dic io aries also served as a source of i forma io . 7. he s ruc ure of he work Work co sis s of I roduc io , Mai par , Co clusio a d he lis of used li era ures. Compou d words are words co sis i g of a leas wo s ems which occur i he la guage as free forms. I a compou d word he immedia e co s i ue s ob ai i egri y a d s ruc ural cohesio ha make hem fu c io i a se e ce as a separa e lexical u i . he s ruc ural cohesio a d i egri y of a compou d may depe d upo u i y of s ress, solid or hyphe a ed spelli g, sema ic u i y, u i y of morphological a d sy ac ic fu c io i g or, more of e , upo he combi ed effec of several of hese or similar pho e ic, graphic, sema ic, morphological or sy ac ic fac ors.

he i egri y of a compou d is ma ifes ed i i s i divisibili y, i.e. he impossibili y of i ser i g a o her word or word group be wee i s eleme s. If, for example, speaki g abou a “su beam” (E glish) кўкйўтал we ca i ser some o her word be wee he ar icle a d he ar icle a d he ou , e.g. a brigh su beam, a brigh a d u expec ed su beam, because he ar icle a is a separa e word, o such i ser io is possible be wee he s ems su & beam қора & кўл, for hey are o words bu morphemes. I describi g he s ruc ure of a compou d o e should exami e hree ypes of rela io s, amely he rela io of he members o each o her he rela io of he whole o i s members, a d correla io wi h equivale free phrases. Some compou ds are made up of a de ermi i g a d a de ermi ed par , which may be called he de ermi a a d me de ermi a e group. hus, a blackboard, томорқа is very differe from a blackboard, том орқа (сида). I s esse ial fea ure is bei g a eachi g aid → ховли атрофида экин экиладиган Майдон →: o every board of a black color is a blackboard. A blackboard may be o a board a all bu a piece of li oleum or some o her sui able ma erial. I s color is o ecessarily black: i may be brow or some hi g else. hus, blackboard → a board which is black. A cha erbox – оташқалб is o a box, i is a perso who alks a grea deal wi hou sayi g a y hi g impor a : he combi a io is used o ly figura ively. he same me aphorical charac er is observed i he compou d slowcoach хомсемиз. I is also idioma ic as i does o ame a vehicle bu a perso who ac s a d hi ks slowly. A fuss – po is a perso easily exci ed a d ervous abou rifles. hus for he origi al mo iva io of he idioma ic compou d could be easily recrea ed. he followi g examples illus ra e idioma ic compou ds where i is o so obvious: “blackleg”, “s rike breaker”, “blackmail” ge i g mo ey or some o her profi from a perso by hrea s blues ocki g “a woma affec i g li erary as es a d lear i g” he a alysis of he sema ic rela io ship exis i g be wee he co s i ue s of a compou d prese s ma y difficul ies. Some au hors have a emp ed a purely logical i erpre a io dis i guishi g copula ive, exis e ial, spa ial a d o her co ec io s. his scheme, however, failed o show he li guis ic esse ce of compou ds a d was cumbersome a d ar ificial. A mis ake commo wi h ma y au hors is rea i g sema ic co ec io s wi hi compou ds i erms of sy ac ic rela io s. Marcha d, For i s a ce, whe a alyzi g he ype house – keepi g, backbi i g, housewarmi g, book – keepi g, sigh seei g, e c. Wri es: “I mos cases he firs word is he objec . A subjec /predica e rela io u derlies ear h quaki g, cock – crowi g, cock – figh i g, su bur i g . he firs word is he predica e complime i well – bei g a d shor – comi g.” . G. Gu erma very co vi ci gly showed ha such sy ac ic rea me should be avoided because sy ac ic ies are ies be wee words, whereas i deali g wi h compou ds o e s udies rela io s wi hi a word, he rela io s be wee he morphemes, i s sig ifica co s i ue s. hese wo series of rela io s belo g o differe levels of abs rac io a d should o be mixed.

I he compou d spacecraf space – is o a a ribu e o – craf . I ca o possess sy ac ic fu c io s, bei g o a word bu a s em, So i is more co ve ie o co sider i a de ermi a res ric i g he mea i g of he de ermi a e by expressi g he purpose for which – craf – is desig ed or he medium i which i will ravel. Surely, o e could combi e hese wo poi s of view usi g a more careful. Wordi g, a d formula e i as follows: phrases correla ed wi h compou ds by mea s of ra sforma io al a alysis may show objec ive, subjec /predica e, a ribu ive a d adverbial rela io s. E.g. house – keepi g: o keep house, well – bei g: o be well. I he majori y of cases compou ds ma ifes some res ric ive rela io ship be wee he co s i ue s; ypes of res ric io s show grea varie y. Some examples of de ermi a ive compou d ou s wi h res ric ive quali a ive rela io s are give below. he lis is o mea o be exhaus ive a d serves o ly o illus ra e he ma ifold possibili ies. Purpose of fu c io al rela io s u derlies such compou ds as ba hrobe, rai coa , ёмғирпўш, classroom – синфхона, o ice – board, a d sui case. Differe place or local rela io s are expressed i dockla d, garde – par y, sea – fro . Compariso is he basis of blockhead, bu er – fi gers, floodligh , a d goldfish. he ma erial or eleme s he hi g is made of is poi ed ou silver wear, i – ha , clay – pipe. emporal rela io s u derlie such compou ds as igh – club, igh – du y, summer – house a d day – rai . Sex – de o i g compou ds are ra her umerous: she – dog, he – goa . II. Mai par Chap er I 2.1.1 Specific fea ures of E glish, Uzbek a d Germa Compou ds A compou d is a word composed of more ha o e free morpheme. E glish compou ds may be classified i several ways, such as he word classes or he sema ic rela io ship of heir compo e s. Examples by word class Modifier Head Compou d ou ou wall paper adjec ive ou black board verb ou break wa er preposi io ou u der world ou adjec ive s ow whi e adjec ive adjec ive blue – gree verb adjec ive umbledow preposi io adjec ive over – ripe ou verb browbea adjec ive verb highligh verb verb freeze – dry preposi io verb u dercu ou preposi io love – i adjec ive preposi io for h wi h verb preposi io ake ou preposi io preposi io wi hou 1) Si ce Uzbek is a mos ly a aly ic la guage, u like mos o her Germa ic la guages, i crea es compou ds by co ca e a i g words wi hou case markers. As i o her Germa ic la guages, he compou ds may be arbi rarily lo g. However, his is obscured by he fac ha he wri e represe a io of lo g compou ds always co ai s bla ks. For example i Germa here are a lo of lo g compou ds wi h more ha hree words: die BewuЯ sei serziehu g - воспитание сознательность ach zeh hu der zwцlf – 1812 O he co rary Uzbek compou ds are shor compou ds. Ex: кўзойнак, атиргул, бўтакўз, тоққайчи. he way of formi g Uzbek a d E glish shor compou ds are he same, while Germa is o i cluded o his group. here are hree ways of formi g shor compou ds he solid or closed form i which wo usually modera ely shor words appear oge her as o e. Solid compou ds mos likely co sis s of shor (mo osyllabic) u i s ha of e have bee es ablished i he la guage for a lo g ime.

Remember how slow has been our progress in distinguishing vervet calls. Not until 1967 did anyone realize that these common animals had any calls with distinct meanings. The most experienced observers of vervets still cannot separate some of their calls without machine analysis, and even with machine analysis the distinctness of some of the suspected ten calls remain unproven. Obviously, vervets (and other animals) could have many other calls whose distinctness we have not yet recognized. There is nothing surprising about our difficulties in distinguishing animal sounds, when one considers our difficulties in distinguishing human sounds. Children devote much of their time for the first several years of their lives to learning how to recognize and reproduce the distinctions in the utterances of adults around them. As adults, we continue to have difficulty distinguishing sounds in unfamiliar human languages. After four years of high-school French between the ages of twelve and sixteen, my problems with understanding spoken French are embarrassing compared to the abilities of any four-year-old French child

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99. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

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