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Historical measurement of the science of governing

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HE MI IS RY OF EDUCA IO Ma ageme academy a he Preside of Republic of Belarus HE ABS RAC O discipli e: he Gover me O a heme: His orical measureme of he scie ce of gover i g MI SK 2010 he gover me heory is o e of mos impor a a d perspec ive direc io s of he moder poli ical hough s. Poli ical sphere from he comple e, o divided huma socie y, bra ch of he world poli ical from eco omic, social a d spiri ual subsys ems has occurred e ough la e. Origi ally poli ical phe ome a were s udied i frameworks domi a i g paradigms i co ec io wi h he ge eral complex of he public phe ome a. Wi hi almos wo hi gs - si ce imes of A iqui y a d up o XIX ce ury - all k owledge of he social phe ome a were u iform comple e sys em. Bu already Aris o le (384-322 BC) gave o he doc ri e abou he gover me domi a i g value. All he public life, i i s opi io , kep wi hi frameworks of a poli ical life a d was placed i he service of he s a e. He u derli ed: «As he scie ce abou he s a e uses o her scie ces as mea s a d, besides, legisla ively defi es, wha ac s should be made a d from wha o abs ai , i s purpose i cludes, probably, he purposes of o her scie ces, he ce, his purpose also will be he higher he blessi g for people ». A ique philosophers co sidered s a e occurre ce as a ural process of complica io of forms of a hos el of people, his co cep has received he ame of he pa riarchal heory of he s a e. Aris o le has offered o e of he firs such hypo hesis: i he begi i g people have u i ed i families, he some families have formed se leme , a d a a fi ishi g s age of his process here was a s a e as he form of a hos el of he ci ize s usi g a poli ical sys em. Aris o le u derli ed: i all people he a ure has i s alled aspira io o he s a e dialogue a d he firs who has orga ised his dialogue, has re dered o ma ki d he grea es blessi g. Wi hi he limi s of he pa riarchal heory he s a e is co sidered as he big family where rela io s of he gover or a d i s ci ize s are ide ified wi h rela io s of he pa riarch - he chief of family a d members of his family. Crisis of he a ique policy has forced k ow a ique philosophers o address o a problem of s re g he i g of he gover me , a co se a d order guara ee i a socie y. Pla o (427-347 BC) places special emphasis o he gover me prime arge - achieveme of i egri y of a socie y hrough mai e a ce of he co se of all public es a es. He u derli es: «We s ill i he begi i g whe based he s a e, have es ablished wha o do i is ecessary by all mea s for he sake of whole. A d so his whole also is jus ice.» he mos da gerous e de cy des royi g he gover me , Pla o co sidered aspira io of some public groups o depar from service o ge eral welfare, usurpi g public fu c io s for ex rac io of perso al be efi . I Pla o 's ideal s a e he guards k owi g safe y, should o use gold a d silver, could o eve ouch hem, be decora ed by hem or dri k from gold a d silver vessels. Pla o war ed: «. Hardly ow ear h, houses, mo ey as ow from guards here are hey ow ers a d la d ow ers will be go a hem; from allies of o her ci ize s will become hos ile or lords; ha i g a d causi g o hemselves ha red, feedi g malicious i e io s a d hem bei g afraid, all of hem ime will live i большем fear before i er al e emies, ha before ex er al, a d i ha case bo h hey a d all s a e will direc o he promp des ruc io .

Bu for he gover me Pla o co sidered as he grea es harm oligarchy. I defi ed oligarchy as a poli ical sys em which is based o a proper y qualifica io : a he power here rich, a d poor me do o par icipa e i ma ageme of public affairs. he proper y qualifica io es ablishme becomes he law a d orm of a oligarchic sys em; he more a sys em oligarchic, he above he qualifica io . he such s a e order keeps applica io of he armed force. Pla o wi h i dig a io wro e ha i oligarchies he avidi y a d self-i eres are erec ed o a hro e a d, excep riches a d rich me o hi g causes deligh a d ho ori g, a d he ambi io is direc ed o ly o mo ey-maki g a d o every hi g, ha o i co duc s. I he Middle Ages process of occurre ce of he s a e bega o co sider wi hi he limi s of religious ou look as es ablishme of i s i u e of he erres rial power es ablished by he God. his co cep s has received he ame of he heological heory of he s a e. Moder Ca holicism co siders as he official doc ri e abou he s a e Fomy Akvi sky's (1225-1274) sigh s which called people for obedie ce of he gover me co ec ed wi h divi e laws. I developed he co cep « wo градов» which i he spiri of he Chris ia doc ri e has ried o dissolve au hori y of he s a e a d au hori y of church: «give кесарево o he Caesar, a d Божие o he God». K ow Russia poli ical philosopher Bulgakov (1871 1944), es ima i g his period i his ory, fairly u derli ed: spli of a public life o he secular a d church has brough serious disso a ce a d double-e ry bookkeepi g eve i souls of hose who qui e u ders ood all his orical rela ivi y a d i er al ab ormali y of his bifurca io . For he co serva ive &quo ;guardi g&quo ; posi io of o -i erfere ce o a s a e policy a d a public life wi h moral cri eria he medieval church has paid, o he o e ha d, wi h huma is ic eari g away from i i s mos ac ive par , wi h a o her - ow impoverishme , fadi g of crea ive spiri . he ew u ders a di g of he gover me o es a epoch of la e Revival. I alia hi ker ikola Machiavelli (1469-1527) co siders for he firs ime he s a e admi is ra io i a ech ological key - as ech ologies of he gover me . he ech ological approach o he gover me assumes, ha he cri erio of efficie cy is pu above moral s a dards a d rules. For Machiavelli he exper i he field of he gover me is he exper offeri g useful ech ological recipes o compe i ors of he gover me . I recog izes ha he gover me ca cha ge he ow ers, pass from ha ds i ha ds. Recipes of gover me Machiavelli addresses o &quo ;a ew sovereig », aspiri g o keep he power which is challe ged co s a ly by ew compe i ors: «i is difficul o keep he power o a ew sovereig . A d eve o he heredi ary sovereig who has a ached ew possessio - so he s a e becomes as hough mixed, i is difficul o keep over i he power firs of all owi g o he same a ural reaso wha causes revolu io s i all ew s a es. amely: people, believi g, ha he ew gover or will appear be er, willi gly rise agai s old, bu soo o experie ce are co vi ced, ha were deceived, for he ew gover or always appears worse old ». ool scie ce of he gover me a Machiavelli philosophers, a d he poli ical professio als above all pu i g poli ical efficie cy as hose should seize o .

From i s poi of view, «a ew sovereig » should o follow morals precep s if i is ecessary - o recede from good a d o use his abili y depe di g o he circums a ces. For realiza io of he domi a io «a ew sovereig » ca use a y mea s: «whe ever possible o o leave from good, bu a eed o o avoid a d harms». Murders because of a cor er, i rigues, plo s, a d o her ar ful mea s he recomme ded o Use poiso i gs widely i busi ess of a gai a d gover me deduc io . For his reaso Machiavelli ame became i he gover me a i sidious ess a d immoralis sy o ym. Whe oday speak abou макиавеллизме, mea low moral quali ies of people. Machiavelli divided sovereig s i o lio s a d foxes. Lio s are brave a d fearless, bu hey ca o o ice da ger i ime. herefore foxes more succeed i he gover me : fair deceivers a d hypocri es. hey are i he opi io of people compassio a e, rue o a word, mercy, si cere, pious, bu i er ally keep abili y o show opposi e quali ies if i is ecessary. Макиавелли wro e: «So, from all a imals le a sovereig will assimila e o wo: o a lio a d a fox. he lio is afraid of raps, a d a fox - wolves, he ce, i is ecessary o be similar o a fox o be able o bypass raps, a d o a lio o frigh e off wolves. he o e who is always similar o a lio , ca o o ice a rap. From wha follows, ha he reaso able gover or ca o a d should o remai o he rue promise if i harms o i s i eres s a d if he reaso s which have i duced i o give he promise have disappeared. Such cou cil would be u wor hy if people fairly held a word, bu people, bei g дурны, words do o hold, herefore a d you should arrive wi h hem as. A d a plausible excuse o break he promise always will be. Examples o ha se : how ma y peace rea ies, how ma y agreeme s have o come i o force or has rui ed ha sovereig s broke he word, a d always i a prize here was he o e who had he fox a ure. However i is ecessary s ill o be able o cover his a ure, i is ecessary o be he fair deceiver a d a hypocri e, people so are i ge uous a d so are absorbed by he eares eeds, ha deceivi g always will fi d he o e who will allow i self o make a fool. I is ecessary o be i he opi io of people compassio a e, rue o a word, mercy, si cere, pious - a d o be ha really, bu i er ally i is ecessary o keep readi ess o show a d opposi e quali ies if i appears i is ecessary ». I he e d of ХIХ ce ury Germa philosopher Fredric i sshe (1844-1900), i ma y respec s followi g radi io s макиавеллизма, has crea ed he co cep of he super perso - « he grea perso of crowd», capable o carry ou he gover me , usi g he mos low huma passio s a d defec s. I is o wo der ha duri g he Seco d World War fascis leaders aspired o lea agai s F. i sshe's philosophy for he jus ifica io of a bru al s a e policy of he hird Reich. Ницше has bee co vi ced ha he gover me should lea agai s viole ce a d use ech ologies of propaga io a d ma ipula io wi h public co scious ess. I each perso , a d e ormous egoism which wi h he grea es ease breaks righ borders o wha i rifles he ordi ary life es ifies firs of all es s i large scale - each page of his ory a d he gover me . I i s opi io , a he hear of he co ve io al ecessi y of so carefully preserved Europea bala ce he co scious ess, co fessio of ha fac lays already, ha he perso is he preda ory a imal for cer ai rushi g o weakes which will mee o i o a way.

And lo and behold—if that's what the scholars really want—it did happen in that way. We are entitled, indeed we ought to doubt every accepted pattern of thought or working hypothesis, for if existing ideas are not called in question research is at an end. So our historical past is only relatively true. If new aspects of it turn up, the old working hypothesis, however familiar it may have become, must be replaced by a new one. It seems the moment has come to introduce a new working hypothesis and place it at the very centre of our research into the past. New knowledge about the solar system and the universe, about macrocosm and microcosm, tremendous advances in technology and medicine, in biology and geology, the beginning of space travel—these and many other things have completely altered our world picture in less than fifty years. Today we know that it is possible to make space-suits that can withstand extremes of heat and cold. Today we know that space travel is no longer a Utopian idea. We are familiar with the miracle of colour television, just as we can measure the speed of light and calculate the consequences of the theory of relativity

1. The Science Of Grammar

2. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

3. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

4. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art

5. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

6. Historical Background of the Middle English Period
Historical Background of the Middle English Period
7. The Tower of London
The Tower of London
8. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain

9. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

10. The Church of England

11. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

12. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

13. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

14. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

15. My modern image of the United States

16. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

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17. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

18. The Tower of London

19. The Economy of Great Britain

20. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

21. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

22. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание
23. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life
24. The Hero of Our Time
The Hero of Our Time

25. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

26. The house of my dream

27. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

28. The role of art in our life

29. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

30. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

31. The fastest computers of the world

32. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

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Раздел: Карточные игры

33. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

34. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

35. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

36. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

37. The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

38. The Taming of the Shrew
The Taming of the Shrew
39. The teaching of Hugo Gratius
The teaching of Hugo Gratius
40. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada
The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

41. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

42. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

43. London - the capital of Great Britain

44. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

45. Problems of the youth

46. The uniqueness of the British

47. The protection of the environment

48. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

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370 руб
Раздел: Аэрозоль, спрей

49. The library of our institute

50. The lesson of English

51. Cities of the USA

52. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?

53. Washington is the capital of the USA

54. Flora and Fauna of the USA
Flora and Fauna of the USA
55. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?
Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?
56. The cities of USA
The cities of USA

57. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

58. Art of the Edo Period

59. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

60. Category of number of the noun

61. History of democracy of the USA

62. Political System of the USA

63. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

64. The Snows of Mars

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Раздел: Наборы доктора
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Раздел: Стиральные порошки
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Раздел: Более 24 цветов

65. The development of computers in the USA

66. The system of english tenses

67. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

68. The Future of American Youths

69. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

70. The Feather of Finist the Falcon
The Feather of Finist the Falcon
71. Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)
Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)
72. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?
Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

73. For the Beauty of the Earth

74. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

75. The Grapes of Wrath

76. Valley of the Kings

77. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

78. The Formation of Youth Subcultures

79. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

80. Second period of the Renaissance.

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Тарелка Lubby "Веселые животные" с присоской.
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Раздел: Тарелки

81. The Taming of the Shrew

82. The Society of Travelling Art Exhibitions

83. The map of England

84. The history of Manhattan

85. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

86. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks
The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks
87. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)
Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)
88. Algorithmic recognition of the Verb
Algorithmic recognition of the Verb

89. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

90. The production of 2H-labeled amino acids by a new mutant of RuMP fucultative methylotroph Вrevibacterium methylicum

91. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

92. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

93. Communication The Exchange of Information

94. Constellations of the star sky

95. Emblems of the UK

96. Industrial development of the African countries

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Раздел: Для стекол, зеркал

97. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

98. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

99. Social structure of the society


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