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The Definite Article with Class Nouns in English and in French

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1. Ge eral Overview of he Ca egory of Ar icle i E glish a d Fre ch 1.1 Ar icle. Ge eral o io A ar icle is a word ha combi es wi h a ou o i dica e he ype of refere ce bei g made by he ou a d o specify he volume or umerical scope of ha refere ce. Ar icle ca be also hough of as a special ki d of adjec ive, because i combi es wi h a ou a d co ribu es o he mea i g of he ou -phrase. Ma y li guis s place he ar icle i he ca egory of de ermi ers. M. Ia. Blokh i his book “ heore ical Grammar of he E glish La guage” says “ he ar icle is a de ermi i g u i of specific a ure accompa yi g he ou i commu ica ive colloca io .” he li guis s L. A. Barmi a a d I. P. Verkhovskaya have he same idea abou he ar icle as a de ermi er. hey a ribu e i o a sy ac ic class of words called de ermi ers which modify a ou . he dic io ary of hesaurus gives he defi i io of he word “ar icle” as a de ermi er ha may i dica e he specifici y of refere ce of a ou phrase. Webs er’s ew World College Dic io ary refers o he ar icle as used as adjec ives. Also i his co ex we would like o add he words of he li guis B. Ilyish who devo ed a whole chap er of his book “S roi sovreme ogo a gliyskogo eazika” o he s udy of he ar icle. He remarks ha he ar icle is usually a separa e u i which may be divided from i s ou by o her words, chiefly adjec ives. So, we may co clude ha he firs fea ure of he ar icle ca be ha he ar icle is a de ermi er of he ou ha refers o, ha is why i ca have some fu c io s of a adjec ive a d i is used as a separa e u i . A o her fea ure of he ar icle is ha ar icles, defi i e or i defi i e, are radi io ally co sidered o form a separa e par of speech. V. L. Kausha skaya i her book “ he Grammar of he E glish La guage” specifies he ar icle as a s ruc ural par of speech. I E. M. Gordo ’s book “A Grammar of Prese -Day E glish” we also mee he o io of a s ruc ural word as he li guis gives he followi g defi i io of he ar icle: “ he ar icle is a s ruc ural word specifyi g he ou ”. Accordi g o hese wo defi i io s we ca defi e he seco d fea ure of he ar icle – i is a s ruc ural word. Judgi g upo he defi i io s give by he differe li guis s a d he dic io aries lis ed above we ca draw a co clusio a d deduce a ge eral defi i io for he ar icle ha would i clude all i s fea ures: A ar icle is a s ruc ural par of speech, which is combi ed wi h a ou o de ermi e i . 1.2 Ar icles i E glish here are wo ar icles i Moder E glish which are called he i defi i e a d he defi i e ar icle. he abse ce of he ar icle, which may be called he zero ar icle, also specifies he ou a d has sig ifica ce. he i defi i e ar icle has he forms a a d a . he form a is used before words begi i g wi h a co so a sou d (a book, a able, a door). he form a is used before words begi i g wi h a vowel sou d (a apple, a hour, a aim). he ar icle is pro ou ced ; whe s ressed i is pro ou ced . 1.2.1 he Defi i e Ar icle i E glish he defi i e ar icle has o e graphic form he, which is pro ou ced i wo ways: before a vowel sou d before a co so a sou d .

his ar icle is used before ou s i he plural, as well as before ou s i he si gular umber. 1.2.2 he His ory of he Defi i e Ar icle i E glish Exami i g he defi i e ar icle by M.A. Gashi a’s book “E glish Grammar Higher School” we fi d some words abou i s his ory. he li guis says ha he defi i e ar icle he is a weake ed form of he Old E glish demo s ra ive pro ou se ( omi a ive se; da ive ΄южm; accusa ive ΄юo e, e c.) which i Old E glish, besides he fu c io of a demo s ra ive, had also he fu c io of he defi i e ar icle. he form “se” was i he masculi e ge der, “seo”- femi i e, a d “юж ”- eu er. source gives he i forma io ha i Middle E glish all hese ki ds of he demo s ra ive pro ou had merged i o юe, he a ces or of he Moder E glish word he. I says ha i Middle E glish he (юe) was freque ly abbrevia ed as a ю wi h a small e above i , similar o he abbrevia io for ha , which was a ю wi h a small above i . Duri g he la er Middle E glish a d Early Moder E glish periods, he le er hor (ю) i i s commo scrip , or cursive form came o resemble a у shape. As such he use of a у wi h a e above i as a abbrevia io became commo . his ca s ill be see i repri s of he 1611 edi io of he Ki g James “Versio of he Bible” i places such as Roma s 15:29 or i he Mayflower Compac . he ar icle was ever pro ou ced wi h a у sou d, eve so wri e . O e of he li guis s who were i eres ed i he his ory of he E glish la guage - Barbara M. H. S ra g, i her book “A His ory of E glish” s a es ha he defi i e ar icle was by 1170 o ly margi ally rela ed o he pro ou sys em. I had wo dis i c ypes hroughou he period. I mos par s of he cou ry i was i decli able юe, la er he, or a he very mos i varied be wee si gular юe a d plural юa. However, i he S a d SW Mid i was decli able, wi h hree ge ders i he si gular a d up o four cases. Where i had decli able forms hey were he same as hose for he ‘fur her’- demo s ra ive, ha , si ce, i fac , hey had origi a ed i a special use of ha form. he forms se ou below were i some par s o ly demo s ra ive, i o hers hey had double fu c io ; hey are prese ed for refere ce-purposes, bu hey e d o sugges far more differe ia io ha mos speakers k ew. I he masc sg here were four forms: se, subj; юe e, юa e, acc; юa , юe e, K юa(Ke ish), la er юo, da (i.e., some speakers reduced he case-sys em o hree eve here). he fem sg usually had hree forms: seo, si (SW a d SE) subj; юa, la er юo, e cli ic o, oblique; юer, южre, ge . he eu er (like he 3rd perso pro ou ) had he same form for subj a d direc obj юe or юa (accordi g o dialec , bu a e ded o i vade e-areas, as a weak form, or by i er al borrowi g, or bo h); he da was usually юa , he ge юes or юas . I he plural all he ge ders had subj-obj юa, la er юo, da or oblique юa , ge юere. he li guis emphasizes ha af er he very begi i g of Middle E glish period, a d ou side K , case a d ge der dis i c io s , i ar icle or demo s ra ive, occur o ly pa chily, a d he i circums a ces showi g ha heir his orical fu c io s have bee forgo e .

O herwise, excep for some persis e ce of plural ho, he defi i e ar icle has become fully i decli able by he e d of he period. As he defi i e ar icle comes from he demo s ra ive pro ou of Old E glish i had preserved i s demo s ra ive mea i g ha is s ill fel i such expressio s as o hi g of he ( ha ) ki d; a he ( ha ) ime; u der he ( hose) circums a ces; for he ( ha ) purpose; he lady (= his lady) is wai i g o see you. hus we ca draw he co clusio ha he defi i e ar icle akes i s origi from he Old E glish demo s ra ive pro ou se which was decli able i co formi y wi h he ge der, umber a d case of he ou i modified. La er i he Middle E glish i cha ged i o юe wi h ou s i si gular a d юa wi h ou s i plural ha became he i he Prese -day E glish. he defi i e ar icle re ai ed i s demo s ra ive mea i g hroughou all he periods of he E glish la guage developme a d owadays i s firs a d mos impor a mea i g is o e of a demo s ra ive. 1.3 he Ar icle i Fre ch Grammar he e ymology of he word “ar icle” comes from La i ar iculus a d i mea s “small member”. Accordi g o he Fre ch li guis Maurice Grevisse ar icle is a word placed before he ou i order o mark ha his ou is ake i i s comple e or i comple e de ermi ed mea i g; i also serves o i dica e he ge der a d he umber of he ou i precedes. .B. Grevisse also says i his book “Le bo usage” ha he ar icle ca be arra ged amo g he adjec ives as i serves o i roduce he ou . hus, compari g wi h E glish we see ha i he Fre ch grammar he ar icle is also placed before he ou . I also has he fu c io of a de ermi er. Bu , as dis i c from he E glish ar icle he ar icle i Fre ch besides i s de ermi a io of he ou sema ically has he fu c io of de ermi i g i from he gramma ical poi of view. I serves o i dica e he ou ’s ge der a d umber. He ce i appears he firs differe ce be wee he ar icles i E glish a d i Fre ch. here are wo ypes of ar icles i Fre ch: defi i e(dйfi i) a d i defi i e(i dйfi i). o e: i is dis i guished of e he hird ype of he ar icle i Fre ch – he par i if ar icle, bu his o e ca be releva by i s forms o he defi i e ar icle a d by i s mea i g i ca be belo ged o he group of he i defi i e ar icle. So, we fi d ou he seco d differe ce be wee he ar icles of he wo la guages. he E glish a d he Fre ch La guages have hree ypes of ar icles a d we saw ha he firs wo ypes coi cide i heir ames: defi i e a d i defi i e. Speaki g abou he hird ype of ar icles i bo h la guages i should be o ed ha i E glish i is called zero ar icle a d i wri e speech i is re dered by he abse ce of he ar icle bu i Fre ch i is called he par i if ar icle which has four forms bu we will speak abou hem i grea er le g h i 1.3.3 1.3.1 he Defi i e Ar icle i Fre ch Maki g he parallel be wee he E glish a d he Fre ch grammar we ca observe ha i he Fre ch la guage ar icles agree wi h ou s hey de ermi e i ge der a d umber. he Fre ch defi i e ar icles (l’ar icle dйfi i) are: le – wi h ou s i masculi e, si gular, le garзo ; la – wi h ou s i femi i e, si gular, la fille; l’ – wi h ou s i masculi e a d femi i e i he si gular form begi i g wi h a vowel or mu e h, l’arbre, l’иre, l’habi ude, l’homme; les – wi h ou s i masculi e a d femi i e i he plural form, les e fa s.

And a few black-and-white ink drawings, simpler than the rest and easier to understand. Easier for a kid like me, anyway. I couldn't make much sense out of the accompanying text, it was a mixture of English and French and some other foreign languages – sometimes just the name of the artist and a gallery or museum. At first I couldn't even tell if it was supposed to be an art collection or a book about sexy women without men. My reading ability was pretty good then, and I even knew some of the French words, drummed into my head at an early age by another of the long line of maidservants, one who must have fancied herself a high-class governess. And the French sure helped, I soon discovered, adding just enough to explain some of the scientific English. (Phony scientific, I found out later, but still loaded with goodies for a beginner like myself!) So after a while I got the hang of the thing and could look at it for pure enjoyment as much as for information. And that was the extent of my progress by the time I realized the vacuum hum had quit

1. Sellers and buyers in Russia and in foreign countries

2. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

3. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

4. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

5. The history of Old English and its development

6. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”
7. Holidays and traditions in english-speaking countries
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8. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

9. Композиторы in English

10. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

11. Homonymy in English

12. Word stress in English

13. Presents in Russia and America

14. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

15. French Borrowings in the Modern English Language

16. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

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18. Essay on the article "Tobacco and Tolerance: Blowing smoke" (о вреде курения)

19. The cinema in Russia today

20. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)

21. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

22. Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English
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23. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
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24. The role of art in our life
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25. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

26. The School Education in Great Britain (Школьное образование в Великобритании)

27. Militant Islam’s Expansion in the Southern Philippines

28. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

29. Redesigning the Dragon Financial Reform in the Peoples Republic of China

30. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind... Пастернак и нравственная дилемма послереволюционной интеллигенции

31. Education in the USA

32. Under what conditions will the oligopolists agree to co-operate in their decisions

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34. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia

35. Europe in the Middle Ages

36. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

37. The lesson of English

38. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism
39. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future
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40. Category of number of the noun
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41. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

42. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

43. Sports in the USA

44. The development of computers in the USA

45. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

46. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

47. The English Countryside

48. Holidays in Russia, Britain and the USA

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50. The Tower in Tudor Times: A royal prison

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53. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

54. The transactions in civil law
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55. Rise of sociology as an intellectual tradition. Classical tradition in sociology of the XIX century
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56. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution
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57. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)

58. Changes and specimens of the English language

59. English in business

60. Grammar Games - Motivation in Teaching English

61. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

62. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

63. The British Character and English Humour

64. The development of sustainable tourism in Turkey

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66. The origin and history of the English language

67. The role played by the german and scandinavian tribes on english language

68. Tragic heroes in modern English literature

69. School education in the USA

70. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism
71. The collection of French art in the Hermitage
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72. Advertising in the world of art
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73. The Tower of London

74. Спецподразделения Армии Израиля: "Голани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

75. The great Britain

76. Climate and Weather in Great Britain (Климат и погода в Великобритании)

77. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

78. Luther Martin in krestjanskoy voyne w Germanii

79. Two approches to the scientific management

80. Democracy in Russia

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81. The Church of England

82. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

83. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

84. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

85. Small business lending in Kazakhstan (предоставление кредитов малому бизнесу в Казахстане)

86. The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind
The enviromental problems which concern the Mankind
87. AIDS IN AFRICA (СПИД в Африке)
88. American Federalism in 1990s
American Federalism in 1990s

89. Business relation ships in japan

90. Education in Moscow school

91. English topics

92. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

93. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

94. Regulation in telecommunications industries: Why, What and How to Regulate?

95. Russia and the international economy

96. Substance abuse: Alcohol Consumption and alcohol dependence among the youth (Социологическое исследование проблемы алкоголизма среди студентов)

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97. The basical macroeconomics indicators

98. The Castles of England

99. The fastest computers of the world


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