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The Radicalism of the American Revolution

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Gordo Wood is Professor of His ory a Brow U iversi y. He is o e of he leadi g scholars researchi g issues of he America Revolu io i he cou ry. I 1970, his book “ he Crea io of he America Republic 1776–1787” was omi a ed for he a io al Book Award a d received he Ba crof a d Joh H. Du i g prizes. His ou s a di g book, “ he Radicalism of he America Revolu io ” wo he Puli zer Prize i 1993. I is co sidered o be o e of he mos e gagi g scie ific books amo g he classic works o he social, poli ical a d eco omic co seque ces of he Revolu io ary War. his book has a power o redirec his orical hi ki g a d well-es ablished k owledge abou he Revolu io a d i s place wi hi he a io al co scious ess. I he book “ he Radicalism of he America Revolu io ”, Professor Wood represe s for readers a revolu io ha ra sformed almos feudal socie y i o a democra ic o e, whose emergi g reali ies some imes co fused a d disappoi ed i s fou di g fa hers. Professor Wood has wri e a wide ra ge of i eres i g books. He was also i volved i Ke Bur 's PBS produc io o homas Jefferso , a d is co ribu i g his k owledge a d u ders a di g i he a io al Co s i u io Ce re ha was buil i Philadelphia a d o a regular basis dedica es a share of his ime eachi g his ory o high school s ude s arou d he cou ry. he values a d lesso s of he America Revolu io seem o be so “ a ural” a d also have become so deeply i egra ed i America poli ics a d social life ha hey are irrefu able. We may s a e ha ac ually o o e oday seriously suppor s a mo archy a d heredi ary aris ocracy for he U i ed S a es. hus far, he poli ical a d social heories behi d he America Revolu io were as radical as, for i s a ce, he ideas of Mao a d Le i seem o us. I his mas erpiece of a his ory book, Professor Wood a alyzes he comprehe sive social cha ges se free duri g he developme s of he America Revolu io . He ries o show he process of rapid ra sforma io of a ear-feudal socie y i o a democra ic socie y wi h guara eed liber ies a d freedoms, such as freedom of speech, belief, a d ma y o hers ha are eve oday, i imes of moder world are u k ow i ma y cou ries. Au hor’s device is o le a reader look a he America Revolu io hrough a e irely ew perspec ive a d apprecia e i s sig ifica ce wi h all he serious ess. he ale ed au hor Professor Wood offers a fresh curre i moder his ory o he forma ive years of he U i ed S a es, givi g descrip io of he as ou di g ra sforma io of dis i c , quarrelli g a d figh i g colo ies. I fac , his oria s have always had some problems researchi g revolu io ary a ure of he America Revolu io . I his brillia ly represe ed a d co vi ci gly argued book, o e of he mos celebra ed America his oria s re ova es he radicalism, bri gs i o he deba e a d defi e as o e of he grea es revolu io s he world has ever k ow . As o e of he specialis s said “ he Radicalism of he America Revolu io ” is he mos impor a s udy of he America Revolu io o appear i over we y years. his work is also co sidered a brea h aki g social, poli ical, a d ideological a alysis of crucial his orical eve s of he America cou ry.

His oria professor Wood depic s i his impressive a d i calculably readable mix ure of his orical, poli ical, cul ural, ideological a d eco omic a alysis much more ha jus a break wi h E gla d. He represe s for his audie ce a revolu io ha resul ed i serious cha ges wi hi he cou ry. O ce agai , we may say ha almos feudal socie y was made a democra ic o e. he work “ he Radicalism of he America Revolu io ” is i fac a co i ua io of Professor Wood’s earlier work “ he Crea io of he America Republic, 1776-1787”. We as readers may claim ha his is a mag ifice s udy a d fully deserves he Puli zer Prize i had ac ually received. “ he Radicalism of he America Revolu io ” covers differe issues a d gives a swers o differe problems. I researches somehow he same challe ges as Ber ard Baily 's “ he Ideological Origi s of he America Revolu io ” (Harvard U iversi y Press, 1967), bu i co ras , Professor Wood develops a much more de ailed, precise, a d persuasive represe a io of a socie y ra sforma io from o e of feudal rela io ships o he o her ha was predica ed o democracy, republica ism, a d capi alism based o a marke eco omy. We see ha primary Gordo Wood argues ha he America Revolu io was beyo d doub a radical chap er i world his ory a d i his ory of he U i ed S a es i par icular. He s a es, “ he republica revolu io was he grea es u opia moveme i America his ory. he revolu io aries aimed a o hi g less ha a reco s i u io of America socie y. hey hoped o des roy he bo ds holdi g oge her he older mo archical socie y - ki ship, pa riarchy, a d pa ro age - a d o pu i heir place ew social bo ds of love, respec , a d co se . hey sough o co s ruc a socie y a d gover me s based o vir ue a d disi eres ed public leadership a d o se i mo io a moral gover me ha would eve ually be fel arou d he globe” (p. 229). Wood represe s his as “a si gle a d mos powerful a d radical ideological blow i all of America his ory” (p. 234). He calls all hese ideas u opia , for had li le rus i wha was pla ed. He has li le belief i a comple io of all he radical s eps ha were u der ake . He comme s, “Perhaps o hi g separa ed early- i e ee h-ce ury America s more from Europea s ha heir a i ude owards labour a d heir egali aria se se ha everyo e mus par icipa e i i ” (p. 286). We are bou d o say ha Gordo S. Wood opposi g earlier his oriographies disagrees ha he America Revolu io represe ed a ru hfully radical moveme . Formerly his oria s had regarded he eve as ra her co serva ive i ac io a d ex e . Professor Woods akes courage o disagree wi h his radi io al i erpre a io . I fac , i is also releva o say some words abou he Revolu io i ge eral. he exac a ure a d scope of he revolu io is a ma er of grea specula io . I is ge erally agreed a d excep ed ha he Revolu io origi a ed arou d he ime of he Fre ch a d I dia War (1754–1763), a d fi ished wi h he elec io of George Washi g o as he firs Preside of he U i ed S a es i 1789. Fur her he heories vary. O o e ha d is he supposi io ha he America Revolu io was o “revolu io ary” a all, ha i did o radically reorga ized colo ial socie y, bu jus replaced a dis a gover me wi h a local o e.

O e he o her ha d is he opposi e view impli g ha he America Revolu io was a u ique a d radical eve , represe i g bold cha ges ha had a deep a d s ro g i flue ce o world his ory. ha is why he work of Professor Wood “ he Radicalism of he America Revolu io ” is academicaly impor a for us, especially i view of exis e ce of umerous i erpre a io s of he eve . I he progress of his s udy, Professor Wood leads his audie ce i chro ological order hrough he developme s leadi g up o, hroughou , a d followi g he War for I depe de ce a emp i g o pic ure he adva ceme of i ellec ual hough duri g he par icular period. A alysi g he s udy we may say ha Wood asser s ha he America Revolu io did more ha smoo h he progress of separa io of he colo is s from he E glish mo archy, bu he adds ha also i served o des abilize a d demoralize he yra ical a d ou of da e earlier regime quali ies of be efac io , depe de ce, a d s ric hierarchy. he au hor o es ha all hese social ra sforma io s, ma chi g wi h he break from he mo archical sys em, produced radical a d empoweri g cha ges ha i a s raigh li e i flue ced he u ique pa h he you g America a io would follow. Subseque ly, Wood claims ha he radical a ure of he America Revolu io produced comprehe sive, i flue ial a d shapeless co seque ces u foresee by he revolu io ary fou di g fa hers who were he au hors of he idea of Revolu io . Wi hi his s udy, Gordo Wood shapes his research i hree major segme s; he speaks firs abou Mo archy, he abou Republica ism, a d a las abou Democracy. Professor i his work dismisses widespread misco cep io s regardi g he grou d a d charac er of he colo is s' rela io ship wi h E gla d, moreover he represe s he revolu io ary i ellec ual a d social orga iza io s of colo ial socie y alo g wi h he clear descrip io of he mo archical sys em. he au hor pays a e io o he fac ha before he begi i g of he America Revolu io prolifera io of i s i ri sic republica ideals, he o iceable spli i g up be wee he aris ocracy a d ordi ary people le colo ial socie y o he sys em of privilege be efac io a d pa ro age represe ed u der he auspices of a mo archical sys em. o e heless, i is impor a o poi ou , as progressive ideas ex e ded by mea s of pamphle s, poli ical rac s a d books, he America colo is s paid a e io o republica ideals a d s ar ed heir ques io i g of commu al a d poli ical divisio s. he republica ism ma ifes i g i self i accep ed colo ial socie y resul ed i he fi al ermi a io of close a d s ro g bo ds o he mo archy. Prese i g he republica ism of colo ial socie y, Professor Wood dispu es ha such ewly bor ideas a ai ed radical sig ifica ce by providi g a percep ive a d sig ifica defy o he mo archical sys em. hough, he au hor says, he move forwards for i depe de ce adva ced u cer ai ly o some ex e , i symbolized hus far he culmi a io of a ew social op imism reso a i g ow a d he wi hi he colo ial popula io , i cludi g also revolu io ary leaders hemselves ha is also very impor a o s a e. Wood also pays much a e io o he Democracy. He co siders ha such poli ical phe ome o exis ed i absolu e opposi io o he mo archical orga iza io of he socie y.

Русское общество и Французская революция 1789- 1794. М, 1956. Шторм Г. Потаенный Радищев. М., 1974. Шур Л. А. Испанская и Португальская Америка в русской печати XVIII первой четверти XIX в.//Латинская Америка в прошлом и настоящем. М, 1960. Шур Л. А. Россия и Латинская Америка. М., 1964. Alaska and Its History/Ed. by М. В. Sherwood. Seattle and London, 1967. Albrecht Е. Die Stellung der Vereinigten Staaten von Amerika zur bewaffneten Neutralitat von 1780//Zeitschrift fur Volkerrecht. - VI.-1913. Alexsandrov V. LOurs et la Baleine. Lhistoire des relations extraordinaires russo-americaines. Paris, 1958. America and Russia. A Century and a Half of Dramatic Encounters/Ed. by O. Jenson. N. Y, 1962. Andrews C. L. The Story of Alaska. Coldwell, 1947. Babey A. М. Americans in Russia 1776-1917. A Study of the American Travellers in Russia from the American Revolution to the Russian Revolution. N. Y, 1938. Bailey Th. A. America Faces Russia. Russian-American Relations from Early Times to Our Days. Ithaca, 1950. Bancroft Н. Н

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