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KOREA People and History in Harmony

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I roduc io    I he pas wo decades, Korea has bee o e of he fas es developi g a io s i he world - bo h i eco omic a d social erms. Rapid i dus rial a d eco omic grow h has see he Republic early reach developed a io s a us i a remarkably shor ime. he Korea people also fi d hemselves i he mids of a ew era of democra ic developme followi g he bir h of he civilia Admi is ra io of Preside Kim You g Sam o February 25, 1993. his wiped ou he ega ive legacy of decades of mili ary-backed au hori aria rule. he cou ry has si ce bee impleme i g bold poli ical a d eco omic reforms o eradica e corrup io a d revi alize a d res ruc ure he eco omy wi h he goal of buildi g a ew Korea - a ma ure a d vibra i dus rial democracy.    his rapid eco omic a d social developme has brough Korea i creased i er a io al exposure a d recog i io , as he Republic begi s o expa d i s role o he i er a io al s age. es ifyi g o his was he successful hos i g of he 1988 Seoul Olympics, he larges held i his ory up o ha ime. his was followi g by he 1993 hos i g of a i er a io al exposi io , he aejo Expo ‘93.  Bo h he Seoul Olympics a d he aejo Expo played a impor a role i deepe i g ies be wee Korea a d cou ries all over he world a d gave a impe us o he Korea eco omy.    his era of s abili y a d expa di g i er a io al ies represe s he mos exci i g period i he cou ry’s his ory - a d ye , i re rospec , Korea has, i i s 5,000-year his ory, qui e a e viable record for gover me s of lo gevi y a d s abili y. he cou ry’s las dy as y, he Yi Dy as y of he Choso Ki gdom, las ed 500 years.    he Korea s of oday, while e ormously proud of heir cou ry’s pas , look a Korea’s role a d repu a io   from a more rece his orical perspec ive; bu , i order o u ders a d oday’s Korea - i s la d, people, cul ure, his ory, a d rece eco omic a d poli ical ra si io s - i is ecessary o look a bo h he pas a d he prese . “Korea I Focus” aims o give you a brief overview o help i your ge eral aware ess of Korea oday. More de ailed i forma io ca be ob ai ed from i dividual orga iza io s or gover me offices. La d    he Korea Pe i sula, loca ed i or heas Asia, is bordered o he or h by Chi a a d Russia a d ju s owards Japa o he sou heas . Si ce 1948, he 221,487  square kilome ers which make up he e ire Pe i sula have bee divided, roughly alo g he 38 h parallel, i o he Republic of Korea i he sou h a d he Democra ic People’s Republic of Korea i he or h. he Republic of Korea covers 99,221 square kilome ers, a la d area a li le more ha wice he size of Swi zerla d.    Seoul is he capi al of he cou ry which is made up of i e provi ces; o her major ci ies i clude Pusa , aegu, I ch’o , Kwa gju, a d aejo .    he la dscape is spec acular i i s varia io s a d abou 70 perce of i is mou a eous. he ocea s arou d he Pe i sula are a major source of livelihood a d recrea io for Korea s. he shoreli e is do ed by more ha 3,000 isla ds.    he Pe i sula’s lo ges river is he Am okka g (790 km) i he or h. O e of he Sou h’s major wa erways is he Ha -ga g River, which flows hrough Seoul o he Wes Sea (Yellow Sea). His ory    A look back a he 5,000 years of Korea his ory reveals riumphs a d ragedies, successes a d s ruggles which have bee i s rume al i shapi g he Korea a d Korea s of oday.

O e remarkable fac ha emerges from such a his orical  exami a io is ha Korea has largely bee ruled by lo g- erm, s able gover me s. Korea’s ki doms a d  dy as ies ge erally las ed abou 500 years or more.    Al hough Korea’s raceable his ory bega co siderably earlier ha he seve h ce ury, i was he Shilla U ifica io i 668 ha Korea, as a his orical e i y wi h a cohesive cul ure a d socie y, came o occuрy mos of he Pe i sula as i exis s oday.    I was almos a decade af er he e d of he war before he Republic of Korea had recovered sufficie ly o es ablish s abili y a d s ar he mome um for i s ow remarkable recovery a d developme . he hree decades si ce he have bee a ime of spec acular progress which has see he crea io of a moder , i dus rialized a io . People    Korea is homoge eous socie y, al hough here have bee his oric a d prehis oric migra io s of Chi ese, Mo gols a d Japa ese. Korea s are very co scious of he e h ic differe ces a d cul ural dis i c io s which give hem heir u ique ide i y.    he popula io of he Republic of Korea was es ima ed a 44.1 millio i 1993. I s popula io de si y is amo g he world’s highes a d Seoul, he capi al, has more ha 10 millio i habi a s. he a ual popula io grow h i he Republic has dropped from a average of 2.7 perce i he 1960-66 period o o ly 0.90 perce i 1993.  he slowdow is also par ly he resul of he i creasi g umber of you g worki g wome .    he cou ry’s rapid i dus rializa io is respo sible for oday’s co ce ra io of popula io i urba ce ers.  he propor io of Korea s livi g i ci ies has jumped from o ly 28 perce i 1960 o 74.4 perce as of 1990 - very similar o he 73 o 76 perce levels i he U i ed S a es, Japa a d Fra ce. La guage    he Korea la guage is spoke   by some 60 millio people livi g o he Pe i sula a d i s ou lyi g isla ds as well as some 1.5 millio Korea s livi g i o her par s of he world.    Korea belo gs o he Ural-Al aic la guage group, which is fou d i a arrow ba d from Korea a d Japa across Mo golia a d ce ral Asia o urkey. Korea is a o - o al la guage, wi h agglu i a ive a d polysy he ic eleme s. Religio    Religio i oday’s Korea covers a broad spec rum of fai hs a d beliefs. Buddhism, Chris ia i y, Co fucia ism, Islam a d umerous o her i dige ous religio s exis i Korea. Al hough o e of hem domi a es, hey all i flue ce co emporary cul ure. Educa io    Educa io has bee a he hear of Korea’s grow h by rai i g a d supplyi g he ma power eeded for rapid i dus rial a d eco omic expa sio .    A mul i- iered educa io al sys em is curre ly i use, e compassi g eleme ary school (six years), middle school ( hree years), high school ( hree years), a d college (four years), as well as various gradua e a d professio al programs.    he gover me has eased regula io s o overseas s udy. his ew policy also e courages hose i he eachi g professio o ake adva age of oppor u i ies for rai i g abroad. ra spor a io    he reme dous pace of domes ic eco omic grow h i he pas wo decades has bee reflec ed i he expa sio of ra spor a io facili ies a d he i creases i Korea’s a ual passe ger a d cargo volumes. he a ual volume of passe ger ra spor a io rose from 1.6

billio perso s i 1996 o 14.24 billio i 1993.    Seoul has a well-developed mass ra si sys em of subways, buses, a d axis. Airpor shu les or ci y buses are co ve ie ly available a d opera e hroughou he ci y. he subway sys em is he eigh h lo ges i he world, carryi g 1,388 millio people i 1993. I s four li es reach mos major loca io s i he ci y.    Korea has hree i er a io al airpor s i Seoul (Kimpo), Pusa (Kimhae) a d Cheju (Cheju), all of which are equipped wi h moder air raffic co rol facili ies a d suppor sys ems. Korea Air’s worldwide e work serves 43 ci ies i 24 a io s, i cludi g rece ly i augura ed fligh s o Rome. he ewly lau ched Asia a Airli es rece ly s ar ed i er a io al fligh s wi h regular service o four ee ci ies i Japa , he U.S., Si gapore, Ho g Ko g, aipei a d Ba gkok.    All expressway sys em also co ec s Seoul wi h provi cial ci ies a d ow s, pu i g a y place i mai la d Sou h Korea wi hi a o e-day rou d rip of he capi al. Express buses ra spor passe gers o a d from all pri cipal ci ies a d resor s i he cou ry.    he railway also serve he e ire cou ry hrough a efficie a d ex e sive e work. he super-express rai , Saemaul, ru s 444.5 kilome ers from Seoul o Pusa i four hours a d 10 mi u es. here are also ordi ary express a d local rai s.    Ocea li ers, cruise ships, a d passe ger-carryi g freigh ers visi Korea por s. A ferry service li ks Pusa wi h Chejudo Isla d a d he Japa ese por s of Shimo oseki, Kobe a d Hakada. A o her ferry service rece ly s ar ed be wee I ch’o a d ia ji Chi a. elecommu ica io s    elepho e services have rapidly expa ded  duri g he las decade, par icularly duri g he las 5 Years (1988-”92). Duri g hese years, wi h he i ves me of US$2.64 billio i commu ica io s a ually, 1.76 millio ew elepho e circui s were i s alled each year, i creasi g he o al umber of elepho e li es o 10.14 millio as of 1993. Vir ually every home i he cou ry ow has i s ow elepho e a d all he elepho e circui s are co ec ed by au oma ic swi chi g sys ems.    Also, hrough he lau ch of KOREASA scheduled i 1995, Korea will be able o provide sa elli e commu ica io services by usi g i s ow sa elli e from Oc ober 1995. Список литературы

The underlying strength of the Chinese desire for unity is illustrated by the fact that, while the rise of nationalism in Europe in the nineteenth century resulted in the break-up of old empires and the creation of many new states, this has never happened, and shows no sign of happening, in China. The Chinese commitment to unity has three dimensions: the fundamental priority attached to unity by both the state and the people; the central role expected of the state in ensuring that this unity is maintained; and a powerful sense of a common Chinese identity that underpins this overarching popular commitment to unity. This unity could never be taken for granted: China has spent around half its history in varying degrees of division, which, in the light of the country’s size and diversity (far greater than that of Europe), is not surprising. As a result of its attachment to unity, China has largely escaped the intra-state wars that have scarred Europe ’s history over many centuries, though its periods of disunity and fragmentation have often carried a very heavy cost in terms of war and famine, notably from the mid nineteenth to the mid twentieth century, when it was chronically divided. [228] China ’s frequent experience of disunity and its baleful consequences have served to reinforce its commitment to unity, a tradition that began with Confucius — who, living during the Warring States period, was witness to the huge cost of instability and conflict, and preached the importance of harmony

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