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The problems of oral translation

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Ce ral Kazakhs a U iversi y “MH I - Li gua” he I s i u e of la guage a d ra sla io “Li gua” I erpre a io facul y Eve i g depar me Shkurskaya Ele a (ЗАПР-053) PROBLEMS OF ORAL RA SLA IO Course paper Speciali y: 050207 - I erpre i g Discipli e: ra sla io heory Superviser: Isabaeva .S. Karaga dy 2008 CO E S I RODUC IO 1 CHAP ER I. RA SLA IO IS A MEA S OF I ERLI GUALCOMMU ICA IO 1.1. RA SLA IO HEORY 1.2A BRIEF HIS ORY OF RA SLA IO 1.3. MAI YPES OF RA SLA IO CHAP ER II. CHARAC ERIS IC FEA URES OF ORAL RA SLA IO 2.1 PROBLEMS OF ORAL RA SLA IO 2.2 O E- AKI G I CO SECU IVE RA SLA IO 2.3 LI GUIS IC PECULIARI IES OF SIMUL A EOUS RA SLA IO CO CLUSIO APPE DIX I RODUC IO Whe you s op a d hi k abou i , every hi g i life is ra sla io . We ra sla e our feeli gs i o ac io s. Whe we pu a y hi g i o words, we ra sla e our hough s. Every physical ac io is a ra sla io from o e s a e o a o her. ra sla i g from o e la guage i o a o her is o ly he mos obvious form of a ac ivi y which is perhaps he mos commo of all huma ac ivi ies. his maybe he reaso people usually ake ra sla io for gra ed, as some hi g ha does o require a y special effor , a d a he same ime, why ra sla io is so challe gi g a d full of possibili ies. here is o hi g easy or simple abou ra sla io , eve as here is o hi g easy or simple abou a y huma ac ivi y. I o ly looks easy because you are used o doi g i . A yo e who is good a a cer ai ac ivi y ca make i appear easy, eve hough, whe we pause o hi k, we realize here is o hi g easy abou i . ra sla io i he formal se se deals wi h huma la guage, he mos commo ye he mos complex a d hallowed of huma fu c io s. La guage is wha makes us who we are. La guage ca work miracles. La guage ca kill, a d la guage ca heal. ra smi i g mea i g from o e la guage o a o her bri gs people oge her, helps hem share each o her’s cul ure, be efi from each o her’s experie ce, a d makes hem aware of how much hey all have i commo . / r.ha dbook/ he co di io s of oral ra sla io impose a umber of impor a res ric io s o he ra sla or's performa ce. Here he i erpre er receives a fragme of he origi al o ly o ce a d for a shor period of ime. His ra sla io is also a o e- ime ac wi h o possibili y of a y re ur o he origi al or a y subseque correc io s. his crea es addi io al problems a d he users have some imes o be co e wi h a lower level of equivale ce. he purpose of he prese work is o s udy he problems of oral ra sla io . o achieve his purpose i is ecessary o fi d solve o he followi g asks: o give he defi i io o he o io “ ra sla io ”; o fi d ou he differe ce be wee wri e a d oral ra sla io ; o charac erize he ypes of oral ra sla io ; o defi e he problems of oral ra sla io ; o fi d various ways a d ra sla i g devices for solvi g hose problems. his paper co sis s of wo chap ers. he firs chap er describes he ra sla io i self, i s developme a d ypes. I he seco d chap er here are he problems of ra sla io a d he ways of i s salva io . hroughou his ory, wri e a d spoke ra sla io s have played a crucial role i i erhuma commu ica io , o leas i providi g access o impor a ex s for scholarship a d religious purposes.

Wri i gs o he subjec of ra sla io go far back i recorded his ory. he prac ice of ra sla io was discussed by, for example, Cicero a d Horace (firs ce ury BC) a d S Jerome (four h ce ury AD); heir wri i gs were o exer a impor a i flue ce up u il he we ie h ce ury./19/ I. RA SLA IO IS A MEA S OF I ERLI GUAL COMMU ICA IO 1.1 RA SLA IO HEORY ra sla io is a mea s of i erli gual commu ica io . he ra sla or makes possible a excha ge of i forma io be wee he users of differe la guages by produci g i he arge la guage ( L or he ra sla i g la guage) a ex which has a ide ical commu ica ive value wi h he source (or origi al) ex (S ). As a ki d of prac ical ac ivi ies ra sla io (or he prac ice of ra sla io ) is a se of ac io s performed by he ra sla or while re deri g S i o a o her la guage. hese ac io s are largely i ui ive a d he bes resul s are a urally achieved by ra sla ors who are bes sui ed for he job, who are well- rai ed or have a special ap i ude, a ale for i . Mas erpieces i ra sla io are crea ed by he pas mas ers of he ar , rue ar is s i heir professio . A i s bes ra sla io is a ar , a crea io of a ale ed, high-skilled professio al. he heory of ra sla io provides he ra sla or wi h he appropria e ools of a alysis a d sy hesis, makes him aware of wha he is o look for i he origi al ex , wha ype of i forma io he mus co vey i a d how he should ac o achieve his goal. I he fi al a alysis, however, his rade remai s a ar . For scie ce gives he ra sla or he ools, bu i akes brai s, i ui io a d ale o ha dle he ools wi h grea proficie cy. ra sla io is a complica ed phe ome o i volvi g li guis ic, psychological, cul ural, li erary, ergo omical a d o her fac ors. he core of he ra sla io heory is he ge eral heory of ra sla io which is co cer ed wi h he fu dame al aspec s of ra sla io i here i he a ure of bili gual commu ica io a d herefore commo o all ra sla io eve s, irrespec ive of wha la guages are i volved or wha ki d of ex a d u der wha circums a ces was ra sla ed. Basically, replaceme of S by of he same commu ica ive value is possible because bo h ex s are produced i huma speech gover ed by he same rules a d implyi g he same rela io ships be wee la guage, reali y a d he huma mi d. All la guages are mea s of commu ica io , each la guage is used o ex er alize a d shape huma hi ki g, all la guage u i s are mea i gful e i ies rela ed o o -li guis ic reali ies, all speech u i s co vey i forma io o he commu ica s. I a y la guage commu ica io is made possible hrough a complica ed logical i erpre a io by he users of he speech u i s, i volvi g a assessme of he mea i g of he la guage sig s agai s he i forma io derived from he co ex ual si ua io , ge eral k owledge, previous experie ce, various associa io s a d o her fac ors. he ge eral heory of ra sla io deals, so o speak, wi h ra sla io u iversals a d is he basis for all o her heore ical s udy i his area, si ce i describes wha ra sla io is a d wha makes i possible. he ge eral heory of ra sla io describes he basic pri ciples which bold good for each a d every ra sla io eve . I each par icular case, however, he ra sla i g process is i flue ced bo h by he commo basic fac ors a d by a umber of specific variables which s em from he ac ual co di io s a d modes of he ra sla or's work: he ype of origi al ex s he has o cope wi h, he form i which S is prese ed o him a d he form i which he is supposed o submi his ra sla io , he specific requireme s he may be called upo o mee i his work, e c.

Co emporary ra sla io ac ivi ies are charac erized by a grea varie y of ypes, forms a d levels of respo sibili y. he ra sla or has o deal wi h works of he grea au hors of he pas a d of he leadi g au hors of oday, wi h i ricacies of scie ce fic io a d he accep ed s ereo ypes of de ec ive s ories. He mus be able o cope wi h he elega cy of expressio of he bes mas ers of li erary s yle a d wi h he ricks a d formalis ic experime s of moder ava -gardis s. he ra sla or has o preserve a d fi i o a differe li guis ic a d social co ex a gamu of shades of mea i g a d s ylis ic ua ces expressed i he origi al ex by a grea varie y of la guage devices: eu ral a d emo io al words, archaic words a d ew coi ages, me aphors a d similes, foreig borrowi gs, dialec al, jargo a d sla g expressio s, s il ed phrases a d obsce i ies, proverbs a d quo a io s, illi era e or i accura e speech, a d so o a d so for h. he origi al ex may deal wi h a y subjec from ge eral philosophical pri ciples or pos ula es o mi u e ech icali ies i some obscure field of huma e deavour. he ra sla or has o ackle complica ed specialized descrip io s a d repor s o ew discoveries i scie ce or ech ology for which appropria e erms have o ye bee i ve ed. His du y is o ra sla e diploma ic represe a io s a d policy s a eme s, scie ific disser a io s a d brillia sa ires, mai e a ce i s ruc io s a d af er-di er speeches, e c. ra sla i g a play he ra sla or mus bear i mi d he requireme s of hea rical prese a io , a d dubbi g a film he mus see o i ha his ra sla io fi s he moveme of he speakers' lips. he ra sla or may be called upo o make his ra sla io i he shor es possible ime, while aki g a meal or agai s he backgrou d oise of loud voices or ra li g ype-wri ers. I simul a eous i erpre a io he ra sla or is expec ed o keep pace wi h he fas es speakers, o u ders a d all ki ds of foreig acce s a d defec ive pro u cia io , o guess wha he speaker mea o say bu failed o express due o his i adequa e proficie cy i he la guage he speaks. I co secu ive i erpre a io he is expec ed o lis e o lo g speeches, aki g he ecessary o es, a d he o produce his ra sla io i full or compressed form, givi g all he de ails or o ly he mai ideas.I some cases he users will be sa isfied eve wi h he mos ge eral idea of he mea i g of he origi al, i o her cases he ra sla or may be ake o ask for he sligh es omissio or mi or error./14/ 1.2 A BRIEF HIS ORY OF I ERPRE A IO I mid-fif ies of he las ce ury co fere ce i erpre er was s ill i i s i fa cy wi h he firs simul a eous i erpre a io havi g bee used af er World War II a he uremburg rials (E glish, Fre ch, Russia a d Germa ). I he i erwar years co secu ive i erpre a io alo e was provided a i er a io al ga heri gs, such as a mee i gs of he League of a io s i Ge eva where E glish a d Fre ch were used. he firs i erpre ers were o rai ed bu e ered he professio o he s re g h of heir mas ery of la guages, prodigious memory, a d heir impressively broad cul ural backgrou d. Some of he lege dary figures of i erpre i g i clude Jea Herber , A dre Kami ker a d Pri ce Co s a i A dro ikof, who was perso al i erpre er o Ge eral de Gaulle a d o e of he fou ders of AIIC, which was es ablished i 1953.

Appendix: Power As an illustration of what I mean about the relative power of programming languages, consider the following problem. We want to write a function that generates accumulators-- a function that takes a number n, and returns a function that takes another number i and returns n incremented by i. (That's incremented by, not plus. An accumulator has to accumulate.) In Common Lisp this would be (defun foo (n) (lambda (i) (incf n i))) and in Perl 5, sub foo { my ($n) = @_; sub {$n += shift} } which has more elements than the Lisp version because you have to extract parameters manually in Perl. In Smalltalk the code is slightly longer than in Lisp foo: n |s| s := n. ^[:i| s := s+i. ] because although in general lexical variables work, you can't do an assignment to a parameter, so you have to create a new variable s. In Javascript the example is, again, slightly longer, because Javascript retains the distinction between statements and expressions, so you need explicit return statements to return values: function foo(n) { return function (i) { return n += i } } (To be fair, Perl also retains this distinction, but deals with it in typical Perl fashion by letting you omit returns.) If you try to translate the Lisp/Perl/Smalltalk/Javascript code into Python you run into some limitations

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98. The New-York City, Places of interest

99. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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