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Has the EU reached the limits of integration?

Фонарь желаний бумажный, оранжевый.
В комплекте: фонарик, горелка. Оформление упаковки - 100% полностью на русском языке. Форма купола "перевёрнутая груша" как у
87 руб
Раздел: Небесные фонарики
Крючки с поводками Mikado SSH Fudo "SB Chinu", №4BN, поводок 0,22 мм.
Качественные Японские крючки с лопаткой. Крючки с поводками – готовы к ловле. Высшего качества, исключительно острые японские крючки,
58 руб
Раздел: Размер от №1 до №10
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131 руб
Раздел: Металлические брелоки

COURSE ESSAY "Poli ical Aspec s of Europea I egra io " By Yaroslav Si i sov, EUBL U iversi y of Ams erdam I roduc io Before a sweri g his ques io , le us face some obvious fac s. So far, he Europea U io has bee he mos adva ced a d successful allia ces of he i depe de cou ries i he moder his ory. O e ca o de y ha i is o ly he EU which es ablished – a leas i he firs pillar – a ew legal order for i s Member S a es, by which hey volu arily shared heir sovereig y based o he rule of law i order o achieve he commo ask, as se for h by Ar icle 2 of he rea y Es ablishi g he Europea Commu i y: ‘. o promo e hroughou he Commu i y a harmo ious a d bala ced developme of eco omic ac ivi ies, sus ai able a d o -i fla io ary grow h respec i g he e viro me , a high degree of co verge ce of eco omic performa ce, a high level of employme a d of social pro ec io , he raisi g of a s a dard of livi g a d quali y of life, a d eco omic a d social cohesio a d solidari y amo g Member S a es.’ Bu as wi h a y o her i er a io al rea y, here is always room for diversi y i i erpre a io . If he righ o i erpre he rea y provisio s a d o her Commu i y legisla io had bee ves ed i Member S a es, he EU would have bee o hi g differe bu jus a o her i er a io al rea y icely falli g wi hi he ge eral sys em of public i er a io al law, where o co rac i g par y ca be bou d agai s i s will. he EU is u ique o have he Europea Cour of Jus ice which, u like a y o her i er a io al ribu als, has a compulsory jurisdic io a d a exclusive au hori y o i erpre he Commu i y legisla io – a leas , wi h respec o he firs pillar of he EU. By widely i erpre i g he EC legisla io a d relyi g o jus o he ex , bu also o ‘ he spiri ’ of he rea y, he Europea Cour of Jus ice has ac ually developed i s ow doc ri e which is ow see as o e of he impor a sources of he Commu i y law. his doc ri e has played a crucial role i impleme i g EU policies, si ce he ex of he rea y a d o her Commu i y legisla io ca o cover i de ail all aspec s of i egra io . Despi e he i s abili y of i s developme , he EU remai s by far more efficie ha a y o her possible al er a ives. he EU is a major achieveme a d is s ill o he move. IGCs bei g clearly i er-s a e ego ia io s bear li le resembla ce o classical diploma ic co fere ces reviewi g i er a io al rea ies. Europea rea y reform ‘is perhaps be er looked a as he co s i u io al process – wi h a i egral role bei g played by he represe a ives of he people, bo h a a io al a d Europea level.’ Why I egra e? Bu why i egra e? Wha made Europea gover me s ac agai s heir cau ious poli ical i eres s? he a swer was give by Jea Mo e , o e of he fou di g fa hers of he Europea Commu i ies a d a lover of aphorisms: ‘People o ly accep cha ges whe faced wi h ecessi y, a d o ly recog ise ecessi y whe he crisis is upo hem’ . I could ’ agree more wi h he firs par of Mo e ’s sayi g, bu I would like o replace he word ‘o ly’ wi h he word ‘be er’ i i s seco d par . A deep crisis is probably he mos powerful impe us o bri g peoples a d cou ries oge her, al hough o he o ly o e. his is exac ly wha happe ed immedia ely af er he World WarII.

he eed for fu dame al poli ical a d eco omic cha ge i Europe was ex remely s ro g. As he Cold War comme ced a d he Iro Cur ai abrup ly divided he co i e , i egra io became a mea s by which he Wes er Europe could defe d i self, i close co-opera io wi h he U i ed S a es, agai s he ex er al Sovie hrea a d he i er al commu is hrea . he eed for a s ro ger a d u i ed Europe ou weighed a i i ial desire of he Allies o pas eurise Germa y. A s ro ger Europe mus have a s ro g Wes er Germa y. A ha ime he Europe was o he move o i egra e. A d i has bee o he move o i egra e si ce he . However, he dialec ics of he i egra io has drama ically cha ged wi h he cha ge of he world affairs i he years 1989-1992. he old dialec ics was ha of he Cold War, wi h he familiar a d mul iple i erac io s be wee he wo Europes, he wo allia ces a d he wo grea powers. he ew dialec ics is of a pa -Europea solidari y a d all-Europea i egra io , a d i has ever bee ried before. Mul i-Speed I egra io a urally, i some areas gover me s e d o reach agreeme s more easily. ‘ he leas dispu ed goal of Europea Co s ruc io is he large marke wi hou borders; eve hose Member S a es wi h reserva io s over o her objec ives do o dispu e his o e’. his explai s why he firs pillar of he EU – eco omic i egra io – has vir ually reached supra a io al level. Commu i y member s a es are willi g o share heir sovereig y i his field because i is clearly i heir i eres o do so. he Europea Si gle Marke has become he world’s larges domes ic marke . I has co ribu ed sig ifica ly o he eco omic grow h, hough i s full po e ial has o ye bee realised. Bu ‘. he poli ical will is evide . his eeds o be ra sla ed i o arge ed ac io .’ By co ras , qui e li le has bee achieved si ce Maas rich i he wo o her pillars of he EU – Commo a d Foreig Securi y Policy (CFSP) a d Jus ice a d Home Affairs (JHA) which s ill remai i ergover me al. his has become a reali y i he i egra io process: he i egra io speeds i he firs pillar as compared o he o her wo pillars vary drama ically. ‘Eco omic i egra io a d securi y co-opera io have always bee a couple da ci g apar from each o her o he same da ce floor. Despi e i s recurre crises a d se backs, he process of eco omic i egra io has e ded o follow he eo-fu c io alis logic of he expa sive ess a d sec oral i egra io . Europea securi y co-opera io has always lagged behi d i his respec .’ By commo agreeme , CFSP was o e of he major disappoi me s of Maas rich . Af er all, Maas rich proposed o o ly a commo foreig a d securi y policy, bu declared he eve ual aim o be a commo defe ce. his has i evi ably lead o he rela io ship be wee he EU a d he defe ce allia ce, he Wes er Europea U io (WEU), bei g pu a s ake. his has become eve more challe gi g si ce he fou di g rea y of he WEU expires i 1998. However, he EU does o seem o be willi g o ake co rol i his area, as i is fel ha he EU is bei g backed up by i s major defe ce par er – he U i ed S a es. he US has always bee able o ac (a d his is wha happe ed whe he war i former Yugoslavia broke ou ) as a ‘saviour of Europe’ i defe ce a d peace-keepi g ma ers.

Similarly, JHA pillar which i cludes issues of comba i g i er a io al crime a d fraud, a d issues rela ed o a commo approach o immigra io policy is a hard u o crack for he EU because of he a io al se si ivi y o hese. However, here has bee some progress i his respec i Maas rich a d fur her i Ams erdam – a leas he workable mecha ism was se ou . Besides, i is a very fer ile area of co-opera io be wee he EU a d he US. O he whole, he EU si ce Maas rich has failed o live up o he peoples’ expec a io s. he exis i g s ruc ures are fur her challe ged by he prospec s of fur her i egra io eas wards: a umber of cou ries i Ce ral a d Eas er Europe, plus some of he successor s a es of he Sovie U io are s rivi g o moder ise eco omically a d poli ically, a d he EU is a impor a mag e for hem, whe her as a marke , a poli ical sys em seeki g o uphold democra ic orms a d values, or a pu a ive defe ce sys em. he queue for membership has le g he ed. Bu he U io is o as a rac ive from he i side as i may look from he ou side. I seemed ha he ‘Mo e -me hod’, i.e. a closer i erac io of a io al eli es as a mea s for Europea i egra io has reached i s limi s. I deed, he EU has experie ced serious i er al problems i he af erma h of Maas rich . O e of he mos obvious was he ra ifica io crisis. I he arrow se se i mea a ‘pe i oui’ vo e i Fre ch refere dum for he ra ifica io of he Maas rich rea y a d he i i ial ‘ o’ vo e i Da ish refere dum. I a wider se se i mea a lack of poli ical suppor of he EU, wide i g of he gap be wee he gover me s a d he gover ed, a d he lack of leadership i he EU. As he i volveme of he EU a d i s i s i u io s has expa ded, bu wi hou a y compleme ary shif i he se se of i volveme a d ide ifica io of he elec ora e, he ques io s rose abou i s very legi imacy. Limi s of Europea I egra io ? Legi imacy a d Democracy ‘ he EU as a scapegoa is hardly a ew co cep ; he problem lies i he fac ha he EU has moved i o a ever-wider ra ge of policy areas, i cludi g, wi h Maas rich , areas previously very closely ide ified wi h he preroga ive of he a io s a e’ . he radi io al co cep of legi imacy ca o be fully applied o he i s i u io s of he EU simply because a ‘si gle Europea a io ’, or Europea demos i i s radi io al se se does o exis as such a d is o likely o appear wi hi foreseeable fu ure. ‘ he i egra io is o abou crea i g a Europea a io or people, bu abou he ever closer U io amo g he peoples of Europe’ . A parliame is a radi io ally democra ic i s i u io o because ‘i provides a mecha ism for represe a io a d majori y vo i g, bu because i represe s . he a io , he demos from which i derives i s au hori y a d legi imacy of i s decisio s’ . If we follow he logic of his o-demos clause, he Europea Parliame ca o be legi ima e a d democra ic by defi i io , a d, herefore, he i crease of powers of he EP a he expe se of he Cou cil ( he voice of he Member S a es) is a s ep i he wro g direc io . I ca o agree o his. he demos is radi io ally see hough he e h o-cul ural prism. Ca ’ we imagi e a ‘poli y whose demos is defi ed, accep ed a d u ders ood i civic, o -e h o-cul ural erms, a d would have legi ima e rule-maki g democra ic au hori y a ha basis’ ? Ca ’ we separa e a io ali y from ci ize ship? Ca ’ people u i e o he basis of shared values, a shared u ders a di g of righ s a d du ies, a d shared ra io al, i ellec ual cul ure which ra sce ds e h o- a io al differe ces? his appears o be he co cep of i roduci g EU ci ize ship.

At point 4, the auditory representational system again has the highest relative intensity, and thus the most behavioral significance, but it has not reached the level of consciousness. Similarly, at point 5, the kinesthetic system takes prime control at that particular time but is below the conscious level. At point 6 both the visual and auditory representational systems are in consciousness, but since the visual system has a slightly higher signal, it will be most highly valued for that step. At point 7, the visual system again assumes prime control but this time is out of consciousness. At point 8 the visual and kinesthetic representational systems overlap out of consciousness, perhaps performing some multi–representational test. The graph essentially plots a portion of a strategy, which we have chosen to divide or punctuate into eight steps: Four of the steps, however, are below conscious awareness; 4, 5, 7, & 8. Yet this does not detract from the behavioral significance of these steps. It is important to point out here that behavioral significance is determined by relative intensity of the representations and the interaction of the system as a whole

1. The New-York City, Places of interest

2. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

3. The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II

4. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

5. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

6. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"
7. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development
The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development
8. The Catcher in the Rye
The Catcher in the Rye

9. The Tower in the 19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument

10. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

11. The Economy of Great Britain

12. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

13. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

14. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

15. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

16. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

Табурет "Престиж" с ободом.
Табурет на 4-х опорах с ободом, диаметр трубы 20 мм. Прочный каркас. Защитные вставки на ножках. Удобное хранение. Мягкое сиденье.
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Раздел: Стулья
Карточки Первого Года "Достижения" (16 карточек).
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Раздел: Прочее
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Раздел: Интерьерные наклейки

17. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

18. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

19. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

20. The Castles of England

21. The fastest computers of the world

22. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)
23. The Tower of London
The Tower of London
24. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

25. The Economy of Great Britain

26. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

27. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

28. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

29. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

30. The Hero of Our Time

31. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

32. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

Ручка "Автомат", 12 штук, в коробке.
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Раздел: Оригинальные ручки
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508 руб
Раздел: Гели, мыло
Фигурки "FIFA 2018. Забивака. Celebrating", 3 штуки, 6 см.
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449 руб
Раздел: Игрушки, фигурки

33. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

34. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

35. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

36. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

37. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

38. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)
39. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles
Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles
40. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

41. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

42. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

43. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

44. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

45. The history of Australia

46. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

47. The practice of modern medicine


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Раздел: Бейджи, держатели, этикетки
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Раздел: Стиральные порошки
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Раздел: Автомобильные холодильники

49. The dark side of the moon

50. History of the USA

51. The United States of America

52. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

53. London - the capital of Great Britain

54. The History of Moscow
The History of Moscow
55. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”
56. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture
THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

57. The United States Of America

58. The uniqueness of the British

59. The protection of the environment

60. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

61. The library of our institute

62. The commonwealth of Australia

63. The Commonwealth of Australia

64. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

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Раздел: Размер 50х70 см, 40х60 см
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Раздел: Сиденья

65. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

66. The sights of USA.

67. The pride of the nation

68. The political system of Great Britain

69. The constitution of Ukraine

70. The history of Christmas
The history of Christmas
71. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony
Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony
72. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR
The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

73. Kastus Kalinovsky the Fighter for Independence of Belarus

74. Dawn of the digital information era

75. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

76. Lexicology of the English Language

77. Regional variation of pronunciation in the south-west of England

78. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

79. The House of Yorks

80. The declaration of independence

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424 руб
Раздел: Прочее
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Раздел: Горки
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542 руб
Раздел: Гели, мыло

81. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

82. The system of english tenses

83. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

84. The Future of American Youths

85. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

86. The Feather of Finist the Falcon
The Feather of Finist the Falcon
87. Prominent People of the Belarus
Prominent People of the Belarus
88. The working day of an engineer
The working day of an engineer

89. Is the nature of quantum chaos classical?

90. For the Beauty of the Earth

91. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

92. The Grapes of Wrath

93. Valley of the Kings

94. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

95. The Formation of Youth Subcultures

96. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

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492 руб
Раздел: Штемпельная продукция, губочницы
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Раздел: Классические игры
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Раздел: Демонстрационные рамки, планшеты, таблички

97. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin

98. Relief of the UK

99. Population of the UK

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