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A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

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202 руб
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Горшок торфяной для цветов.
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148 руб
Раздел: Гермоупаковка

I roduc io I 1973, he U.S. Defe se Adva ced Research Projec s Age cy (DARPA) i i ia ed a research program o i ves iga e ech iques a d ech ologies for i erli ki g packe e works of various ki ds. he objec ive was o develop commu ica io pro ocols which would allow e worked compu ers o commu ica e ra spare ly across mul iple, li ked packe e works. his was called he I er e i g projec a d he sys em of e works which emerged from he research was k ow as he "I er e ." he sys em of pro ocols which was developed over he course of his research effor became k ow as he CP/IP Pro ocol Sui e, af er he wo i i ial pro ocols developed: ra smissio Co rol Pro ocol ( CP) a d I er e Pro ocol (IP). I 1986, he U.S. a io al Scie ce Fou da io ( SF) i i ia ed he developme of he SF E which, oday, provides a major backbo e commu ica io service for he I er e . Wi h i s 45 megabi per seco d facili ies, he SF E carries o he order of 12 billio packe s per mo h be wee he e works i li ks. he a io al Aero au ics a d Space Admi is ra io ( ASA) a d he U.S. Depar me of E ergy co ribu ed addi io al backbo e facili ies i he form of he SI E a d ES E respec ively. I Europe, major i er a io al backbo es such as ORDU E a d o hers provide co ec ivi y o over o e hu dred housa d compu ers o a large umber of e works. Commercial e work providers i he U.S. a d Europe are begi i g o offer I er e backbo e a d access suppor o a compe i ive basis o a y i eres ed par ies. "Regio al" suppor for he I er e is provided by various co sor ium e works a d "local" suppor is provided hrough each of he research a d educa io al i s i u io s. Wi hi he U i ed S a es, much of his suppor has come from he federal a d s a e gover me s, bu a co siderable co ribu io has bee made by i dus ry. I Europe a d elsewhere, suppor arises from coopera ive i er a io al effor s a d hrough a io al research orga iza io s. Duri g he course of i s evolu io , par icularly af er 1989, he I er e sys em bega o i egra e suppor for o her pro ocol sui es i o i s basic e worki g fabric. he prese emphasis i he sys em is o mul ipro ocol i erworki g, a d i par icular, wi h he i egra io of he Ope Sys ems I erco ec io (OSI) pro ocols i o he archi ec ure. Bo h public domai a d commercial impleme a io s of he roughly 100 pro ocols of CP/IP pro ocol sui e became available i he 1980's. Duri g he early 1990's, OSI pro ocol impleme a io s also became available a d, by he e d of 1991, he I er e has grow o i clude some 5,000 e works i over hree doze cou ries, servi g over 700,000 hos compu ers used by over 4,000,000 people. A grea deal of suppor for he I er e commu i y has come from he U.S. Federal Gover me , si ce he I er e was origi ally par of a federally-fu ded research program a d, subseque ly, has become a major par of he U.S. research i fras ruc ure. Duri g he la e 1980's, however, he popula io of I er e users a d e work co s i ue s expa ded i er a io ally a d bega o i clude commercial facili ies. I deed, he bulk of he sys em oday is made up of priva e e worki g facili ies i educa io al a d research i s i u io s, busi esses a d i gover me orga iza io s across he globe.

he Coordi a i g Commi ee for I erco i e al e works (CCIR ), which was orga ized by he U.S. Federal e worki g Cou cil (F C) a d he Europea Reseaux Associees pour la Recherche Europee e (RARE), plays a impor a role i he coordi a io of pla s for gover me - spo sored research e worki g. CCIR effor s have bee a s imulus for he suppor of i er a io al coopera io i he I er e e viro me . I er e ech ical Evolu io Over i s fif ee year his ory, he I er e has fu c io ed as a collabora io amo g coopera i g par ies. Cer ai key fu c io s have bee cri ical for i s opera io , o he leas of which is he specifica io of he pro ocols by which he compo e s of he sys em opera e. hese were origi ally developed i he DARPA research program me io ed above, bu i he las five or six years, his work has bee u der ake o a wider basis wi h suppor from Gover me age cies i ma y cou ries, i dus ry a d he academic commu i y. he I er e Ac ivi ies Board (IAB) was crea ed i 1983 o guide he evolu io of he CP/IP Pro ocol Sui e a d o provide research advice o he I er e commu i y. Duri g he course of i s exis e ce, he IAB has reorga ized several imes. I ow has wo primary compo e s: he I er e E gi eeri g ask Force a d he I er e Research ask Force. he former has primary respo sibili y for fur her evolu io of he CP/IP pro ocol sui e, i s s a dardiza io wi h he co curre ce of he IAB, a d he i egra io of o her pro ocols i o I er e opera io (e.g. he Ope Sys ems I erco ec io pro ocols). he I er e Research ask Force co i ues o orga ize a d explore adva ced co cep s i e worki g u der he guida ce of he I er e Ac ivi ies Board a d wi h suppor from various gover me age cies. A secre aria has bee crea ed o ma age he day- o-day fu c io of he I er e Ac ivi ies Board a d I er e E gi eeri g ask Force. IE F mee s hree imes a year i ple ary a d i s approxima ely 50 worki g groups co ve e a i ermedia e imes by elec ro ic mail, eleco fere ci g a d a face- o-face mee i gs. he IAB mee s quar erly face- o-face or by videoco fere ce a d a i erve i g imes by elepho e, elec ro ic mail a d compu er-media ed co fere ces. wo o her fu c io s are cri ical o IAB opera io : publica io of docume s describi g he I er e a d he assig me a d recordi g of various ide ifiers eeded for pro ocol opera io . hroughou he developme of he I er e , i s pro ocols a d o her aspec s of i s opera io have bee docume ed firs i a series of docume s called I er e Experime o es a d, la er, i a series of docume s called Reques s for Comme (RFCs). he la er were used i i ially o docume he pro ocols of he firs packe swi chi g e work developed by DARPA, he ARPA E , begi i g i 1969, a d have become he pri cipal archive of i forma io abou he I er e . A prese , he publica io fu c io is provided by a RFC edi or. he recordi g of ide ifiers is provided by he I er e Assig ed umbers Au hori y (IA A) who has delega ed o e par of his respo sibili y o a I er e Regis ry which ac s as a ce ral reposi ory for I er e i forma io a d which provides ce ral alloca io of e work a d au o omous sys em ide ifiers, i some cases o subsidiary regis ries loca ed i various cou ries.

he I er e Regis ry (IR) also provides ce ral mai e a ce of he Domai ame Sys em (D S) roo da abase which poi s o subsidiary dis ribu ed D S servers replica ed hroughou he I er e . he D S dis ribu ed da abase is used, i er alia, o associa e hos a d e work ames wi h heir I er e addresses a d is cri ical o he opera io of he higher level CP/IP pro ocols i cludi g elec ro ic mail. here are a umber of e work I forma io Ce ers ( ICs) loca ed hroughou he I er e o serve i s users wi h docume a io , guida ce, advice a d assis a ce. As he I er e co i ues o grow i er a io ally, he eed for high quali y IC fu c io s i creases. Al hough he i i ial commu i y of users of he I er e were draw from he ra ks of compu er scie ce a d e gi eeri g, i s users ow comprise a wide ra ge of discipli es i he scie ces, ar s, le ers, busi ess, mili ary a d gover me admi is ra io . Rela ed e works I 1980-81, wo o her e worki g projec s, BI E a d CS E , were i i ia ed. BI E adop ed he IBM RSCS pro ocol sui e a d fea ured direc leased li e co ec io s be wee par icipa i g si es. Mos of he origi al BI E co ec io s li ked IBM mai frames i u iversi y da a ce ers. his rapidly cha ged as pro ocol impleme a io s became available for o her machi es. From he begi i g, BI E has bee mul i-discipli ary i a ure wi h users i all academic areas. I has also provided a umber of u ique services o i s users (e.g., LIS SERV). oday, BI E a d i s parallel e works i o her par s of he world (e.g., EAR i Europe) have several housa d par icipa i g si es. I rece years, BI E has es ablished a backbo e which uses he CP/IP pro ocols wi h RSCS-based applica io s ru i g above CP. CS E was i i ially fu ded by he a io al Scie ce Fou da io ( SF) o provide e worki g for u iversi y, i dus ry a d gover me compu er scie ce research groups. CS E used he Pho e e MMDF pro ocol for elepho e-based elec ro ic mail relayi g a d, i addi io , pio eered he firs use of CP/IP over X.25 usi g commercial public da a e works. he CS E ame server provided a early example of a whi e pages direc ory service a d his sof ware is s ill i use a umerous si es. A i s peak, CS E had approxima ely 200 par icipa i g si es a d i er a io al co ec io s o approxima ely fif ee cou ries. I 1987, BI E a d CS E merged o form he Corpora io for Research a d Educa io al e worki g (CRE ). I he Fall of 1991, CS E service was disco i ued havi g fulfilled i s impor a early role i he provisio of academic e worki g service. A key fea ure of CRE is ha i s opera io al cos s are fully me hrough dues paid by i s member orga iza io s.

These lines # will prevent them from showing up in the logs. # #$IPTABLES -A udp_packets -p UDP -i $INET_IFACE -d $INET_BROADCAST \ #--destination-port 135:139 -j DROP # # If we get DHCP requests from the Outside of our network, our logs will # be swamped as well. This rule will block them from getting logged. # #$IPTABLES -A udp_packets -p UDP -i $INET_IFACE -d 255.255.255.255 \ #--destination-port 67:68 -j DROP # # ICMP rules # $IPTABLES -A icmp_packets -p ICMP -s 0/0 --icmp-type 8 -j ACCEPT $IPTABLES -A icmp_packets -p ICMP -s 0/0 --icmp-type 11 -j ACCEPT # # 4.1.4 INPUT chain # # # Bad TCP packets we don't want. # $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p tcp -j bad_tcp_packets # # Rules for special networks not part of the Internet # $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ALL -i $LAN_IFACE -s $LAN_IP_RANGE -j ACCEPT $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ALL -i $LO_IFACE -s $LO_IP -j ACCEPT $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ALL -i $LO_IFACE -s $LAN_IP -j ACCEPT $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ALL -i $LO_IFACE -s $INET_IP -j ACCEPT # # Special rule for DHCP requests from LAN, which are not caught properly # otherwise. # $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p UDP -i $LAN_IFACE --dport 67 --sport 68 -j ACCEPT # # Rules for incoming packets from the internet. # $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ALL -d $INET_IP -m state --state ESTABLISHED,RELATED \ -j ACCEPT $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p TCP -i $INET_IFACE -j tcp_packets $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p UDP -i $INET_IFACE -j udp_packets $IPTABLES -A INPUT -p ICMP -i $INET_IFACE -j icmp_packets # # If you have a Microsoft Network on the outside of your firewall, you may # also get flooded by Multicasts

1. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

2. The history of Old English and its development

3. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

4. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

5. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

6. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
7. Intellectual history of the Europe
Intellectual history of the Europe
8. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

9. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

10. The History of English

11. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

12. The history of Australia

13. The History of Moscow

14. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

15. The history of Christmas

16. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

Карандаши цветные "Замок", 24 цвета + 3 двухцветных карандаша, точилка.
Яркие, насыщенные цвета. Отстирываются с большинства обычных тканей. Специальная технология вклеивания (SV) предотвращает поломку
513 руб
Раздел: Более 24 цветов
Фломастеры двухсторонние , 24 цвета.
Фломастеры изготовлены из материала, который обеспечивает прочность корпуса и препятствует испарению чернил, благодаря чему они имеют
311 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета
Электронный звуковой плакат "Живая география".
Электронный звуковой плакат «Живая география» поможет малышу узнать о нашей планете Земля и её обитателях, познакомит его с материками и
794 руб
Раздел: Электронные и звуковые плакаты

17. The history of Ancient Egypt

18. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

19. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

20. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages

21. The history of grammar theory

22. The history of Moscow
The history of Moscow
23. The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition
The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition
24. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

25. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

26. The life and work of the self-employed socialist intellectual, Humphrey McQueen

27. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

28. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

29. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

30. The Irish and South America

31. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

32. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

Бумага "IQ Selection Smooth", А4, 120 г/м2, 500 листов.
Формат: А4. Класса: А+. Количество листов: 500. Плотность листа: 120 г/м2. Белизна: 170% по CIE. Подходит для двусторонней печати. Высокое
681 руб
Раздел: Формата А4 и меньше
Горка для ванной "Веселое купание".
"Веселое купание" - это удивительная водная горка, в виде спирали, по которой съезжают фигурки зверей на спасательных кругах и
569 руб
Раздел: Игровые и разнопредметные наборы
Бумага самоклеящаяся, А4, 25 листов, глянец, 85 г/м2.
Глянцевая самоклеящаяся фотобумага с перманентным клеевым слоем. Для печати на всех струйных принтерах систем Epson, HP, Canon, Lexmark и
385 руб
Раздел: Формата А4 и меньше

33. The fastest computers of the world

34. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

35. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

36. The dark side of the moon

37. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

38. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
39. Problems of the youth
Problems of the youth
40. The uniqueness of the British
The uniqueness of the British

41. The protection of the environment

42. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

43. The Weather and Climate Fluctuations

44. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

45. The pride of the nation

46. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

47. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

48. Category of number of the noun

Набор продуктов.
В комплект входят 5 продуктов, традиционно любимых в нашей стране: курица, сосиски, сыр, колбаса, яйцо. Продукты похожи на настоящие,
330 руб
Раздел: Продукты
Ручка шариковая BIC "Orange", 20 шт, синие.
Ручка шариковая одноразовая. Шестигранный пластиковый корпус. Вентилируемый колпачок. Цвет колпачка и верхней заглушки соотвествует цвету
387 руб
Раздел: Синие
Стул детский "Ника" складной, моющийся (цвет: синий, рисунок: горошек).
Особенности: - стул складной; - предназначен для детей от 3 до 7 лет; - металлический каркас; - на ножках стула установлены пластмассовые
562 руб
Раздел: Стульчики

49. Historical Background of the Middle English Period

50. Lexicology of the English Language

51. Survival of the Welsh Language

52. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

53. American Poetry of the Seventeenth Century as a Reflection of Puritan’s Character

54. Prominent People of the Belarus
Prominent People of the Belarus
55. The making of the collection
The making of the collection
56. For the Beauty of the Earth
For the Beauty of the Earth

57. London city - Capital of the United Kingdom

58. Valley of the Kings

59. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

60. Second period of the Renaissance.

61. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin

62. Relief of the UK

63. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?

64. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

Карандаши цветные "Nuance", 24 цвета.
Карандаши цветные. Пластиковый трехгранный корпус. Диаметр грифеля: 3 мм. В наборе: 24 цвета.
404 руб
Раздел: 13-24 цвета
Мягкий пол универсальный, желтый, 30x30 см (9 деталей).
Данный вид напольного покрытия прекрасно совмещается с мягкими полами 60х60 см и ковриком-пазлом «Классики». 9 деталей - 1 кв.м. Пол идет
754 руб
Раздел: Прочие
Статуэтка "Римская богиня счастья и удачи - Фортуна", 20 см, арт. 127548.
Статуэтка "Римская богиня счастья и удачи - Фортуна" - это отличный вариант подарка. Красивый продуманный дизайн и высокое
696 руб
Раздел: Статуэтки интерьерные

65. History of Andorra

66. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

67. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

68. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

69. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

70. Constellations of the star sky
Constellations of the star sky
71. Emblems of the UK
Emblems of the UK
72. History of english language
History of english language

73. Industrial development of the African countries

74. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

75. Sport in different countries of the world

76. Stylistic Classification of the English Vocabulary

77. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

78. The marking of the Russian Revolution

79. The outline of the period

80. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

Термомозаика "В мире животных".
Ваш ребенок любит изучать животных, а еще — играть и придумывать что-то новое? С термомозаикой "В мире животных" все это можно
383 руб
Раздел: Термомозаика
Кувшин "Бистро", 1,8 л.
Кувшин прозрачный, с крышкой. Материал: стекло. Объем: 1,8 л.
314 руб
Раздел: Кувшины, графины
Набор детской посуды "Белоснежка", 3 предмета.
Набор посуды для детей включает в себя три предмета: суповую тарелку, обеденную тарелку и кружку. Набор упакован в красочную, подарочную
397 руб
Раздел: Наборы для кормления

81. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development

82. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

83. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

84. Working out of the search algorithm of failures of Air Conditioning System of TU-154

85. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

86. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание
87. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)
88. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

89. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future

90. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

91. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century

92. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

93. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

94. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

95. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

96. Stereotypes influences on economic relations between the European Union countries and Russian Federation

Кружка "Котик черный".
Смешная щурящаяся мордочка кота и его маленькие ушки - вот, что делает эту кружку такой неотразимо милой! Округлая, сужающаяся кверху
367 руб
Раздел: Кружки
Маркеры перманентные, 12 цветов.
В наборе 12 перманентных маркеров. Оставляют след на обратной стороне бумаги.
588 руб
Раздел: Перманентные
Стиральный порошок "Molecola", для цветного белья, с растительными энзимами, 1,2 кг.
Стиральный порошок "Molecola" эффективно удаляет загрязнения, не повреждая волокна ткани, сохраняет насыщенный цвет и
357 руб
Раздел: Стиральные порошки

97. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

98. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

99. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.


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