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Changes and specimens of the English language

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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь Учреждение образования &quo ;Гомельский государственный университет им. Ф. Скорины&quo ; Филологический факультет Курсовая работа CHA GES A D SPECIME S OF HE E GLISH LA GUAGE Исполнитель: Студентка группы К-53 Козлова Т.Е. Гомель 2006 СодержаниеI roduc io 1 he or hography of E glish 2 E GLISH OF HE I E EE H CE URY 3 E GLISH OF HE SEVE EE H CE URY 4 E GLISH OF HE SIX EE H CE URY 5. E GLISH OF HE FIF EE H CE URY 6. E GLISH OF HE FOUR EE H CE URY 7.E GLISH OF HE HIR EE H CE URY 8. E GLISH, OR A GLO-SAXO , OF HE WELF H CE URY 9. A GLO-SAXO OF HE ELEVE H CE URY, COMPARED WI H E GLISH 10. A GLO-SAXO I HE IME OF KI G ALFRED Co clusio Li era ure I RODUC IO &quo ;Quo e im verba, e o u quam i de erius, hoc, quo vivimus, saeculo, par im aliqa, par im ulla ecessi a e coge e, mu a a su ?&quo ;--ROB. AI SWOR H: La . Dic ., 4 o; Praef., p. xi. I he use of la guage, every o e chooses his words from ha commo s ock which he has lear ed, a d applies hem i prac ice accordi g o his ow habi s a d o io s. If he s yle of differe wri ers of he same age is various, much grea er is he varie y which appears i he produc io s of differe ages. He ce he da e of a book may of e be very plausibly co jec ured from he peculiari ies of i s s yle. As o wha is bes i i self, or bes adap ed o he subjec i ha d, every wri er mus e deavour o become his ow judge. He who, i a y sor of composi io , would wri e wi h a mas er's ha d, mus firs apply himself o books wi h a scholar's dilige ce. He mus hi k i wor h his while o i form himself, ha he may be cri ical. Desiri g o give he s ude all he adva age, e er ai me , a d sa isfac io , ha ca be expec ed from a work of his ki d, I shall subjoi a few brief specime s i illus ra io of wha has bee said i he foregoi g chap er. he order of ime will be followed i versely; a d, as Saxo charac ers are o very easily ob ai ed, or very ap o be read, he Roma le ers will be employed for he few examples o which he o hers would be more appropria e. Bu here are some peculiari ies of a cie usage i E glish, which, for he i forma io of he you g reader, i is proper i he firs place o explai . Wi h respec o he le ers, here are several cha ges o be me io ed. (1.) he pages of old books are of e crowded wi h capi als: i was a o e ime he cus om o dis i guish all ou s, a d freque ly verbs, or a y o her impor a words, by headi g hem wi h a grea le er. (2.) he le er Ess, of he lower case, had ill la ely wo forms, he lo g a d he shor , as a d s; he former very early resembli g he small f, a d he la er, i s ow capi al. he shor s was used a he e d of words, a d he lo g , i o her places; bu he la er is ow laid aside, i favour of he more dis i c ive form. (3.) he le ers I a d J were formerly co sidered as o e a d he same. He ce we fi d hallelujah for halleluiah, Ioh for Joh , iudgeme for judgeme , &c. A d i ma y dic io aries, he words begi i g wi h J are s ill mixed wi h hose which begi wi h I. (4.) he le ers U a d V were mixed i like ma er, a d for he same reaso ; he la er bei g a co so a power give o he former, a d a le g h dis i guished from i by a differe form.

Or ra her, he figure of he capi al seems o have bee a las appropria ed o he o e, a d ha of he small le er o he o her. Bu i old books he forms of hese wo le ers are co i ually co fou ded or ra sposed. He ce i is, ha our Double-u is composed of wo Vees; which, as we see i old books, were some imes pri ed separa ely: as, VV, for W; or vv, for w. 1 HE OR HOGRAPHY OF E GLISH he or hography of our la guage, rude a d u se led as i s ill is i ma y respec s, was formerly much more variable a d diverse. I books a hu dred years old or more, we of e fi d he mos commo words spelled variously by he same wri er, a d eve upo he very same page. Wi h respec o he forms of words, a few par iculars may here be o iced: (1.) he ar icle a , from which he was dropped before words begi i g wi h a co so a sou d, is of e fou d i old books where a would be more proper; as, a hear , a help, a hill, a o e, a use. (2.) ill he seve ee h ce ury, he possessive case was wri e wi hou he apos rophe; bei g formed a differe imes, i es, is, ys, or s, like he plural; a d appare ly wi hou rule or u iformi y i respec o he doubli g of he fi al co so a : as Goddes, Godes, Godis, Godys, or Gods, for God's; so ma es, ma is, ma ys or ma s, for ma 's. Dr. Ash, whose E glish Grammar was i some repu e i he la er par of he eigh ee h ce ury, argued agai s he use of he apos rophe, allegi g ha i was seldom used o dis i guish he possessive case ill abou he begi i g of ha ce ury; a d he he prophesied ha he ime would come, whe correc wri ers would lay i aside agai , as a s ra ge corrup io , a improper &quo ;depar ure from he origi al forma io &quo ; of ha case of E glish ou s. A d, amo g he specula io s of hese la er days, I have somewhere see a a emp o disparage his useful sig , a d explode i , as a u sigh ly hi g ever well es ablished. I does o i deed, like a syllabic sig , i form he ear or affec he sou d; bu s ill i is useful, because i dis i guishes o he eye, o o ly he case, bu he umber, of he ou s hus marked. Pro ou s, bei g differe i heir decle sio , do o eed i , a d should herefore always be wri e wi hou i . he commo usage of hose who have spoke E glish, has always i cli ed ra her o brevi y ha o melody; co rac io a d elisio of he a cie ermi a io s of words, co s i u e o small par of he cha ge which has ake place, or of he differe ce which perhaps always exis ed be wee he solem a d he familiar s yle. I respec o eupho y, however, hese ermi a io s have cer ai ly o hi g o boas ; or does he earlies period of he la guage appear o be ha i which hey were he mos ge erally used wi hou co rac io . ha degree of smoo h ess of which he o gue was a cie ly suscep ible, had cer ai ly o allia ce wi h hese addi io al syllables. he lo g so orous e di gs which co s i u e he decle sio s a d co juga io s of he mos admired la guages, a d which seem o chime so well wi h he sublimi y of he Greek, he majes y of he La i , he swee ess of he I alia , he dig i y of he Spa ish, or he polish of he Fre ch, ever had a y place i E glish. he i flec io s give o our words ever embraced a y o her vowel power ha ha of he shor e or i; a d eve , his we are i cli ed o dispe se wi h, whe ever we ca ; so ha mos of our gramma ical i flec io s are, o he ear, o hi g bu co so a s ble ded wi h he fi al syllables of he words o which hey are added.

I g for he firs par iciple, er for he compara ive degree, a d es for he superla ive, are i deed added as whole syllables; bu he res , as d or ed for pre eri s a d perfec par iciples, s or es for he plural umber of ou s, or for he hird perso si gular of verbs, a d s or es for he seco d perso si gular of verbs, i e imes i e , fall i o he sou d or syllable wi h which he primi ive word ermi a es. E glish verbs, as hey are ow commo ly used, ru hrough heir e ire co juga io wi hou acquiri g a si gle syllable from i flec io , excep some imes whe he sou d of d, s, or s ca o be added o hem. his simplici y, so charac eris ic of our moder E glish, as well as of he Saxo o gue, i s proper pare , is a e ded wi h adva ages ha go far o compe sa e for all ha is co seque ly los i eupho y, or i he liber y of ra sposi io . Our forma io of he moods a d e ses, by mea s of a few separa e auxiliaries, all mo osyllabic, a d mos ly wi hou i flec io , is o o ly simple a d easy, bu beau iful, chas e, a d s ro g. I my opi io , our grammaria s have show far more affec io for he obsole e or obsolesce ermi a io s e , e h, es , a d eds , ha hey really deserve. ill he begi i g of he six ee h ce ury, e was used o mark he plural umber of verbs, as, hey saye for hey say; af er which, i appears o have bee dropped. Before he begi i g of he seve ee h ce ury, s or es bega o dispu e wi h h or e h he righ of formi g he hird perso si gular of verbs; a d, as he Bible a d o her grave books used o ly he la er, a clear dis i c io ob ai ed, be wee he solem a d he familiar s yle, which dis i c io is well k ow a his day. hus we have, He ru s, walks, rides, reaches, &c., for he o e; a d, He ru e h, walke h, ride h, reache h, &c., for he o her. Abou he same ime, or perhaps earlier, he use of he seco d perso si gular bega o be avoided i poli e co versa io , by he subs i u io of he plural verb a d pro ou ; a d, whe used i poe ry, i was of e co rac ed, so as o preve a y syllabic i crease. I old books, all verbs a d par iciples ha were i e ded o be co rac ed i pro u cia io , were co rac ed also, i some way, by he wri er: as, &quo ;call'd, carry'd, sacrific'd;&quo ; &quo ;fly's , ascrib's , cryd's ;&quo ; &quo ; os , curs , bles , fi ish ;&quo ; a d o hers i umerable. All hese, a d such as are like hem, we ow pro ou ce i he same way, bu usually wri e differe ly; as, called,carried, sacrificed; flies , ascribes , crie s ; ossed, cursed, blessed, fi ished. Mos of hese opics will be fur her o iced i he Grammar. 2 E GLISH OF HE I E EE H CE URY 1.Quee Vic oria's A swer o a Address.--Example wri e i 1837. &quo ;I ha k you for your co dole ce upo he dea h of his la e Majes y, for he jus ice which you re der o his charac er, a d o he measures of his reig , a d for your warm co gra ula io s upo my accessio o he hro e. I joi i your prayers for he prosperi y of my reig , he bes securi y for which is o be fou d i revere ce for our holy religio , a d i he observa ce of i s du ies.&quo ;--VIC ORIA, o he Frie ds' Socie y. 2.From Preside Adams's Eulogy o Lafaye e.--Wri e i 1834. &quo ;Pro ou ce him o e of he firs me of his age, a d you have ye o do e him jus ice.

Oftentimes this theme is transdimensional as is Oz, or that which was just experienced was "just a bad dream" like Dorothy was told upon her awakening in her own bed back in Kansas. CIA cryptic language is manipulation of the English language such that words have a double meaning (aka 'double binds' in mental health terminology.) It works much the way as communication through "inside jokes", among people familiar with each other. Perhaps this is a reason for the government's use of professional comedians as slave handlers. Since mind-controlled slaves' minds function consciously through their subconscious, which has no way of discerning fantasy from reality or intended meaning from literal meaning, cryptic dual level language is especially effective. Many CIA covert operations I was involved in occurred in public. Anyone who overheard the conversation would have discerned something very different from what actually «trance-spired». For example, one of my Washington, D.C. Secret Service escorts linked arms with me like Dorothy did wiih her companions when walking the Yellow Brick Road

1. Lexicology of the English Language

2. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

3. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

4. The role played by the german and scandinavian tribes on english language

5. The English language

6. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin
Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin
7. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"
8. The history of Old English and its development
The history of Old English and its development

9. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

10. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

11. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

12. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English

13. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper

14. Customs and traditions of English speaking countries

15. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

16. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

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Раздел: Стиральные порошки

17. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

18. Survey of the British Geography and Life

19. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

20. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

21. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

22. History of english language
History of english language
23. The Life and Times of Shakespeare
The Life and Times of Shakespeare
24. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

25. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

26. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

27. Why do we learn English language?

28. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

29. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

30. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

31. The Queen of the UK

32. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

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Раздел: Прочее
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Раздел: Сетки противомоскитные
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Раздел: Пелёнки

33. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)

34. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

35. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

36. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

37. Quality of life and management of living resources

38. Advantages and disadvantages of TV
Advantages and disadvantages of TV
39. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society
A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society
40. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

41. Culture of the youth

42. Advantages and disadvantages of television

43. Discovery of the New World

44. Cities of the USA

45. Washington is the capital of the USA

46. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

47. Art of the Edo Period

48. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future

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Раздел: Из резины
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Раздел: Перчатки
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Раздел: Корзины для бумаг, мусора

49. Customs and traditions of Great Britain

50. English Language

51. Political System of the USA

52. The Welsh language

53. Traditions and holidays of Great Britain

54. The English Judicial System
The English Judicial System
55. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century
Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century
56. Prominent People of the Belarus
Prominent People of the Belarus

57. Colonization and Development of Pennsylvania

58. Some problems of the russian spelling

59. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries

60. Valley of the Kings

61. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

62. The development of the Tower

63. The Taming of the Shrew

64. Population of the UK

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Раздел: Кружки
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Раздел: Наборы для кормления
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Раздел: Пакеты для продуктов

65. Economy of the Republic of Ireland

66. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

67. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

68. Sport and recreation in the United States

69. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

70. Constellations of the star sky
Constellations of the star sky
71. Emblems of the UK
Emblems of the UK
72. Industrial development of the African countries
Industrial development of the African countries

73. Linguistic Аspects of Black English

74. Reminiscences of Janet A. Mattei, former director of the American Associations of Variable Star Observers (AAVSO)

75. Social structure of the society

76. Stages and types of an applied sociological research. Sociological research process

77. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

78. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms

79. The origins of the International Socialists

80. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

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Раздел: Свечи чайные

81. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

82. Historical measurement of the science of governing

83. Division of the sentence into phrases

84. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

85. Quantification of osteocyte lacunar density and anisotropy of vascular canals in compact bone

86. The Tax System of the United States
The Tax System of the United States
87. The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages
The comparative typology of English, Russian and Uzbek languages
88. Подготовка к TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language

89. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

90. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

91. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

92. The City of London and its role as a financial centre

93. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

94. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

95. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

96. The system of english tenses

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387 руб
Раздел: Поильники, непроливайки

97. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

98. Incorporation of [2,3,4,5,6-2H5]Phenylalanine, [3,5-2H2]Tyrosine, and [2,4,5,6,7-2H5]Tryptophan into the Bacteriorhodopsin Molecule of Halobacterium halobium

99. The British Character and English Humour

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