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Flora and Fauna of the USA

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Раздел: Небесные фонарики
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o begi he co versa io abou a imals a d pla d word of or h America is be er o s ar wi h expla a io of clima e co di io s a d gografical si ua io of he regio , i order o clear u ders a di g of such a wide diversi y of spices. USA e compasses abou 21.5 millio km², be wee la i udes 26° a d 85° , a d lo gi udes 15° W a d 173° E, a d i s re ches from he Florida Keys or hward o Ellesmere Isla d, a d from Gree la d wes ward o A u Isla d i he Aleu ia Archipelago. Wides i he or h, he co i e arrows sharply a he Gulf of Mexico. Sou h of he U i ed S a es border wi h Mexico, i apers gradually o he Is hmus of Pa ama. I is surrou ded by hree ocea s--- he Arc ic, Pacific, a d A la ic, respec ively o he or h, wes , a d eas ---a d by he Gulf of Mexico o he sou h. I is separa ed from or heas Asia by he Pacific Ocea , a d by he epico i e al Beri g Sea, he Chukchi Sea, a d he co ec i g Beri g S rai . he Gree la d a d orwegia seas, as well as he or h A la ic Ocea , separa e or h America from Europe a d li k he A la ic o he Arc ic Ocea ; he De mark S rai divides Gree la d from Icela d. he S rai of Florida divides or h America from he Wes I dies (Cuba). Clima e, physiography, a d geology play major roles i de ermi i g he dis ribu io s of prese -day soil classes, vege a io ypes, floras, a d fau as. Biogeographers agree ha clima e is he primary fac or i he co rol of hese dis ribu io s. Clima e de ermi es he erosio al a d soil-formi g processes ha occur, a d he life forms ha are able o survive a a give locale, all of which may be affec ed seco darily by he ypes of bedrock a d surficial deposi s e cou ered i he area. I ur , relief i flue ces clima ic pa er s hrough eleva io above sea level a d i s effec s o wi d pa er s a d rai fall. Geoclima ic cha ges ha occurred hroughou Ear h his ory have affec ed he dis ribu io of bio as hrough ime. Clima e has cha ged u der cosmic i flue ces, such as he Mila kovi ch cycles. he clima e has also bee affec ed by he rela ive posi io of he drif i g co i e s, because drif implies la i udi al shif s, cha ges i he dis ribu io of la dmasses rela ive o ocea s a d ocea ic curre s, a d modifica io s i he posi io of mou ai ra ges rela ive o airflow pa er s. For i s a ce, he er iary ope i g of he A la ic o o he Arc ic Ocea , a d he es ablishme of he circuma arc ic curre wi h he ope i g of he Drake Passage be wee Sou h America a d A arc ica, played a sig ifica role i subseque clima ic cooli g. he deep ocea ic co veyor bel (a bo om sea curre ha li ks all he ocea s) was presumably modified by cha ges i co i e al dis ribu io a d may have affec ed clima e. W.F. Ruddima a d J.E. Ku zbach (1991) proposed ha he 3-km uplif of he high pla eaus i ibe a d i wes er or h America i he Plioce e-Pleis oce e were i s rume al i provoki g he la e er iary re d of clima ic cooli g. Fi ally, he pa hways by which bio as have bee able o spread be wee co i e s were also affec ed by he exis e ce of bridges. Such dy amic fac ors i flue ced he evolu io of life o he or h America co i e . Firs we ake a look abou he pla word a d we begi e by exami i g he his ory of or h America vege a io .

A discussio of he his ory of he vege a io of or h America mos logically begi s wi h he eve s of he la e Upper Cre aceous epoch, 70--60 Ma (millio years ago). By he , he a giosperms a d o her major prese -day groups were clearly es ablished as domi a i he world's erres rial flora. he co i e s were closer oge her ha hey are a prese , a d i deed, Eurasia a d or h America were s ill co joi ed across he or her A la ic. he pla e ec o ic forces ha have placed he co i e s i heir prese co figura io s, however, were already i mo io . Our k owledge of he bo a ical eve s of he pas res s o a i erpre a io of he fossil record, which for vascular pla s occurs i wo forms. Macrofossils are s ruc ures such as leaves, s ems, frui s, seeds, wood, a d flowers, whereas pla microfossils represe i g erres rial or freshwa er aqua ic macrophy ic vege a io i clude polle grai s, spores, a d phy oli hs (crys als formed wi hi livi g pla s). Paleobo a y (i cludi g specialized approaches such as de drochro ology a d a alysis of pack-ra midde s) has come o imply he s udy of pla macrofossils, a d paleopaly ology desig a es s udies co cer ed wi h pla microfossils. Experie ce has show ha mos eleme s comprisi g a fossil assemblage are broadly co sis e i erms of habi a prefere ce, or hey ca be sor ed i o subse s reflec i g habi a diversi y (viz., eleva io al gradie s). his orga iza io gives rise o he co cep of paleocommu i ies from which i is possible o deduce pas clima es, paleophysiography, a d biogeographic pa er s. Such reco s ruc io s are based o a direc compariso a d presumed ge eral equivale cy of mos members of a fossil flora wi h moder a alogs (composi io of he flora), o he observa io ha prese -day pla s wi h cer ai morphological a ribu es (e.g., leaf physiog omy) are fou d i cer ai habi a s, a d o he assump io ha mos fossil pla s wi h similar morphological a ribu es occurred i comparable habi a s. For example, moder pla assemblages co ai i g ma y large-leaved, e ire-margi ed species wi h drip- ips ypically occur i humid ropical habi a s; herefore, a fossil flora wi h ma y similar leaf ypes is ake o i dica e a humid ropical paleoe viro me . he composi io of a fossil flora, based o he combi ed i ve ories provided by macro- a d microfossil remai s, leaf physiog omy, a d de drochro ology, are all valuable me hods for s udyi g vege a io al his ory a d reco s ruc i g he e viro me s ha i flue ced he developme of or h America vege a io hrough ime. he moder his ory of sys ema ic bo a y a d floris ics i or h America bega whe he firs Europea s la ded o hese shores a d bega o collec objec s of curiosi y. I is impera ive o use he erm "moder ," for lo g before colo iza io of he ew World by Europea s, he a ive America s, who had arrived mille ia earlier, had developed heir ow sys ems of classifica io , mea s of ide ifica io , a d associa ed ome cla ure. U like ha of heir Europea cou erpar s, heir k owledge was ra sferred by he spoke ra her ha he pri ed word a d was mos ly los as heir civiliza io s fell o he i vaders. o a grea degree, i was o u il he we ie h ce ury ha a ive America s were recog ized as k owledgeable abou heir pla s.

By he , Europea hough domi a ed bo a y, a d he a ive America 's bo a ical u ders a di g was passed o o ly i a occasio al a ive ame re ai ed i a La i ized form. I was o u il Columbus's seco d voyage, i 1493, ha ew World pla s a d a imals were ake across he A la ic. For he Europea scie ific commu i y, he u familiar specime s were a source bo h of grea i ellec ual curiosi y a d of philosophical co cer . he curiosi ies were clearly differe from heir Old World cou erpar s, a d i some i s a ces hey were e irely ovel. he likes a d ear-likes could be associa ed, bu he dis i c ly differe were philosophically roublesome. he Spa ish of he early six ee h ce ury were he firs o describe he flora of he ew World. Go zalo Fer &aacu e; dez de Oviedo y Valdes (1478--1557) visi ed several of he Caribbea isla ds a d por io s of Ce ral America, ryi g o fi he ropical vege a io he observed i o a classifica io scheme ha recog ized o ly six species of rees wi h persis e gree leaves. Oviedo had become acquai ed wi h a ive ew World pla s of equal or eve grea er value ha hose i roduced o he ew World by he Spa ish, a d he urged heir use. He was ig ored. icolas Bau is a Mo ardes (1493--1578) ever saw he ew World. His i eres s were he ew medici es a d ew remedies he fel cer ai exis ed. He classified pla s accordi g o heir medici al proper ies, a d for he America o es he of e re ai ed he a ive ames. He accep ed rea me s recomme ded by he Ameri ds, bu as a firm believer i he Doc ri e of Sig a ures, he occasio ally modified hem. he missio ary Jose d'Acos a (1539--1600) spe 20 years i Peru, re ur i g o Spai i 1588 o publish various works o he ew World. He urged scholars o regard he majori y of livi g hi gs i he ew World as u ique a d o o assig hem es ablished Europea ames. He described umerous a ive eco omic a d medici al pla s a d comme ed o he diversi y of po a oes, oma oes, a d chili peppers he had fou d i he marke ; he also me io ed cacao a d coca. Duri g his period, i ellec ual hough of e was domi a ed by religious dogma. Scholarly i ves iga io s i he a ural scie ces bega primarily i or hwes er Europe. he firs a uralis s of e had o flee he upheavals of he Pro es a Reforma io a d, as a resul , ma y raveled widely a d lear ed from o hers. I his way, a more u ified sys em of classifica io a d ome cla ure bega o develop. Herbals, hose grea omes illus ra ed wi h woodcu s, were he primary bo a ical publica io s of he age. A firs hey were li le more ha res a eme s of Dioscorides or o her classical au hors, bu as he herbals were developed over he ex wo ce uries, ew species a d remedies were i corpora ed, i cludi g he wo ders of he ew World. Of equal impor a ce was he developme of bo a ic garde s, firs es ablished i Pisa i 1543. hese soo became ce ers of scie ific impor a ce because o o ly could pla s of faraway places be see , bu heir medici al proper ies could be de ermi ed also. he followi g discussio begi s wi h he floras of he Maas rich ia s age of he Upper Cre aceous, 70--65 Ma, a d progresses forward i ime hrough he er iary o 2 Ma, he e d of he Plioce e epoch, i.e

Garcilaso de la Vega, el Inca (1869–1871) First Part of the Royal Commentaries of the Yncas: 2 vols / Translated and edited by Clements R. Markham. – London, Hakluyt Society. HRAF SE13 Inca, Doc # 3. Gauld Alan (1968) The Founders of Psychical Research. – London, Routledge & Kegan Paul. Gauld Alan, Cornell A.D. (1979) Poltergeists. – London, Routledge & Kegan Paul. Gee E.R. (1934) The Saline Series of North-western India // Current Science. 2. Pp. 460–463. Gee E.R. (1945) The age of the Saline Series of the Punjab and of Kohat // Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, India. Section B. 14. Pp. 269–310. Ghosh A.K, Bose A. (1947) Occurrence of microflora in the Salt Pseudomorph Beds, Salt Range, Punjab // Nature. 160. Pp. 796–797. Ghosh A. K., Bose, A. (1950a) Microfossils from the Cambrian strata of the Salt Range, Punjab//Transactions of the Bose Research Institute Calcutta. 18. Pp. 71–78. Ghosh A.K., Bose A. (1950b) Microfossils from the Vindhyans//Science and Culture. 15. Pp. 330–331. Ghosh A.K., Bose A. (1951a) Recovery of vascular flora from the Cambrian of Kashmir // Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress, Part III. Pp. 127–128. Ghosh A.K., Bose A. (1951b) Evidence bearing on the age of the Saline Series in the Salt Range of the Punjab // Geological Magazine. 88. Pp. 129–132. Ghosh A.K., Bose A. (1952) Spores and tracheids from the Cambrian of Kashmir // Nature. 169. Pp. 1056–1057. Ghosh A.K., Sen J., Bose A. (1948) Age of the Saline Series in the Salt Range of the Punjab//Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress. Part III. P. 145

1. Cities of the USA

2. History of democracy of the USA

3. Changes and specimens of the English language

4. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

5. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

6. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)
7. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)
8. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

9. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

10. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia

11. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

12. The development of computers in the USA

13. Survey of the British Geography and Life

14. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

15. Of the Polish political parties and organizations in Vilnius (1919 - 1922 gg.)

16. Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

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Раздел: Животные

17. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)

18. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

19. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.

20. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)

21. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

22. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers
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23. Lexicology. Different dialects and accents of English
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24. The Queen of the UK
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25. The fastest computers of the world

26. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти

27. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

28. Quality of life and management of living resources

29. The dark side of the moon

30. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

31. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan

32. Culture of the youth

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33. Advantages and disadvantages of television

34. Discovery of the New World

35. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

36. The pride of the nation

37. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

38. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”
39. Category of number of the noun
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40. Dawn of the digital information era
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41. Lexicology of the English Language

42. Survival of the Welsh Language

43. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

44. Agriculture in the USA

45. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century

46. Prominent People of the Belarus

47. Colonization and Development of Pennsylvania

48. Some problems of the russian spelling

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51. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

52. The development of the Tower

53. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin

54. Relief of the UK
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55. Why the crystal structure of the element is such lattice but not another?
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56. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language
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57. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

58. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

59. Sport and recreation in the United States

60. Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children

61. Constellations of the star sky

62. Emblems of the UK

63. Life and creation of A.K. Tolstoy

64. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

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68. The explaining of the meaning of neologism

69. The history of grammatical study of the English language

70. The origins of the International Socialists
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71. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium
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72. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development
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78. The Tax System of the United States

79. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

80. The history of Old English and its development

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82. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

83. The cities of USA

84. Usa. Howard h. Aiken and the computer

85. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

86. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance
The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance
87. Incorporation of [2,3,4,5,6-2H5]Phenylalanine, [3,5-2H2]Tyrosine, and [2,4,5,6,7-2H5]Tryptophan into the Bacteriorhodopsin Molecule of Halobacterium halobium
88. The history of Germany and tourism
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89. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

90. The unions of artists - "THE BLUE ROSE" AND "THE JACK OF DIAMONDS"

91. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

92. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”

93. The Economy of Great Britain

94. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

95. The Church of England

96. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

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97. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

98. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

99. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

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