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Иностранные языки Иностранные языки

The origin and history of the English language

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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь Учреждение образования «Гомельский государственный университет им. Ф. Скорины» Филологический факультет Курсовая работа HE ORIGI A D HIS ORY OF HE E GLISH LA GUAGE Исполнитель: Студентка группы К-52 Ловренчук Т.Е. Гомель 2007 СодержаниеI roduc io 1. Origi of E glish la guage 2. His ory of E glish la guage 3. E glish li era ure Co clusio Li era ure I roduc io I order ha we may se a jus value upo he li erary labours of hose who, i former imes, gave par icular a e io o he cul ure of he E glish la guage, a d ha we may he be er judge of he credibili y of moder pre e sio s o fur her improveme s, i seems ecessary ha we should k ow some hi g of he course of eve s hrough which i s ack owledged meliora io i earlier days ook place. For, i his case, he ex e of a ma 's k owledge is he s re g h of his argume . As Baco quo es Aris o le, &quo ;Qui respiciu ad pauca, de facili pro u cia .&quo ; He ha akes a arrow view, easily makes up his mi d. Bu wha is a y opi io wor h, if fur her k owledge of fac s ca co fu e i ? Wha soever is successively varied, or has such a ma er of exis e ce as ime ca affec , mus have had bo h a origi a d a progress; a d may have also i s par icular his ory, if he oppor u i y for wri i g i be o eglec ed. Bu such is he levi y of ma ki d, ha hi gs of grea mome are of e lef wi hou memorial, while he ha d of Li era ure is busy o beguile he world wi h rifles or wi h fic io s, wi h fa cies or wi h lies. he rude a d cursory la guages of barbarous a io s, ill he ge ius of Grammar arise o heir rescue, are amo g hose ra si ory hi gs which u spari g ime is ever hurryi g away, irrecoverably, o oblivio . radi io k ows o wha hey were; for of heir cha ges she akes o accou . Philosophy ells us, hey are resolved i o he variable, flee i g brea h of he successive ge era io s of hose by whom hey were spoke ; whose ki dred fa e i was, o pass away u o iced a d ameless, los i he eleme s from which hey spru g. Upo he his ory of he E glish la guage, dark ess hicke s as we read back he course of ime. he subjec of our i quiry becomes, a every s ep, more difficul a d less wor hy. We have ow a rac of E glish li era ure, bo h ex e sive a d lumi ous; a d hough ma y moder wri ers, a d o few eve of our wri ers o grammar, are compara ively very deficie i s yle, i is safe o affirm ha he E glish la guage i ge eral has ever bee wri e or spoke wi h more proprie y a d elega ce, ha i is a he prese day. Moder E glish we read wi h facili y; a d ha which was good wo ce uries ago, hough co siderably a iqua ed, is s ill easily u ders ood. he bes way, herefore, o gai a prac ical k owledge of he cha ges which our la guage has u dergo e, is, o read some of our older au hors i re rograde order, ill he s yle employed a imes more a d more remo e, becomes i some degree familiar. Pursued i his ma er, he s udy will be less difficul , a d he labour of he curious i quirer, which may be suspe ded or resumed a pleasure, will be be er repaid, ha if he proceed i he order of his ory, a d a emp a firs he Saxo remai s. 1. Origi of E glish la guage he value of a la guage as a objec of s udy, depe ds chiefly o he charac er of he books which i co ai s; a d, seco darily, o i s co exio wi h o hers more wor hy o be horoughly k ow .

I his i s a ce, here are several circums a ces which are calcula ed soo o discourage research. As our la guage ook i s rise duri g he barbarism of he dark ages, he books hrough which i s early his ory mus be raced, are o o ly few a d meagre, bu , i respec o grammar, u se led a d diverse. I is o o be expec ed ha i quiries of his ki d will ever e gage he a e io of a y very co siderable umber of perso s. Over he mi ds of he readi g public, he a rac io s of ovel y hold a much grea er i flue ce, ha a y hi g ha is o be discovered i he dusk of a iqui y. All old books co ai a grea er or less umber of obsole e words, a d a iqua ed modes of expressio , which puzzle he reader, a d call him oo freque ly o his glossary. A d eve he mos commo erms, whe hey appear i heir a cie , u se led or hography, are of e so disguised as o o be readily recog ized. hese circums a ces ( he las of which should be a cau io o us agai s i ova io s i spelli g) re ard he progress of he reader, impose a labour oo grea for he ardour of his curiosi y, a d soo dispose him o res sa isfied wi h a ig ora ce, which, bei g ge eral, is o likely o expose him o ce sure. For hese reaso s, a cie au hors are li le read; a d he real a iquary is co sidered a ma of odd habi s, who, by a si gular prope si y, is led i o s udies bo h u fashio able a d frui less-- a ma who ough o have bee bor i he days of old, ha he migh have spoke he la guage he is so curious o k ow, a d have appeared i he cos ume of a age be er sui ed o his as e. Bu Lear i g is ever curious o explore he records of ime, as well as he regio s of space; a d wherever her i s i u io s flourish, she will amass her reasures, a d spread hem before her vo aries. Differe ce of la guages she easily overcomes; bu he leade reig of u le ered Ig ora ce defies her scru i y. He ce, of o e period of he world's his ory, she ever speaks wi h horror-- ha &quo ;lo g igh of apos asy,&quo ; duri g which, like a lo e Sibyl, she hid her precious relics i soli ary cells, a d fleei g from degraded Chris e dom, sough refuge wi h he eas er caliphs. &quo ; his awful decli e of rue religio i he world carried wi h i almos every ves ige of civil liber y, of classical li era ure, a d of scie ific k owledge; a d i will ge erally be fou d i experie ce ha hey mus all s a d or fall oge her.&quo ;--Hi s o olera io , p. 263. I he e h ce ury, beyo d which we fi d o hi g ha bears much resembla ce o he E glish la guage as ow wri e , his me al dark ess appears o have ga hered o i s deepes obscura io ; a d, a ha period, E gla d was su k as low i ig ora ce, supers i io , a d depravi y, as a y o her par of Europe. he E glish la guage gradually varies as we race i back, a d becomes a le g h ide ified wi h he A glo-Saxo ; ha is, wi h he dialec spoke by he Saxo s af er heir se leme i E gla d. hese Saxo s were a fierce, warlike, u le ered people from Germa y; whom he a cie Bri o s had i vi ed o heir assis a ce agai s he Pic s a d Sco s. Cruel a d ig ora , like heir Go hic ki dred, who had bu la ely overru he Roma empire, hey came, o for he good of o hers, bu o accommoda e hemselves.

hey accordi gly seized he cou ry; des royed or e slaved he a cie i habi a s; or, more probably, drove he rem a of hem i o he mou ai s of Wales. Of Welsh or a cie Bri ish words, Charles Bucke, who says i his grammar ha he ook grea pai s o be accura e i his scale of deriva io , e umera es bu o e hu dred a d eleve , as ow fou d i our la guage; a d Dr. Joh so , who makes hem bu i e y-five, argues from heir pauci y, or almos o al abse ce, ha he Saxo s could o have mi gled a all wi h hese people, or eve have re ai ed hem i vassalage. he a cie la guages of Fra ce a d of he Bri ish isles are said o have proceeded from a o her la guage ye more a cie , called he Cel ic ; so ha , from o e commo source, are supposed o have spru g he prese Welsh, he prese Irish, a d he prese Highla d Sco ch. he erm Cel ic Dr. Webs er defi es, as a ou , &quo ; he la guage of he Cel s;&quo ; a d, as a adjec ive, &quo ;Per ai i g o he primi ive i habi a s of he sou h a d wes of Europe, or o he early i habi a s of I aly, Gaul, Spai , a d Bri ai .&quo ; Wha u i y, accordi g o his, here was, or could have bee , i he a cie Cel ic o gue, does o appear from books, or is i easy o be co jec ured. Ma y a cie wri ers sus ai his broad applica io of he erm Cel ae or Cel s ; which, accordi g o S rabo's e ymology of i , mea s horseme , a d seems o have bee almos as ge eral asour word I dia s. Bu Casar i forms us ha he ame was more par icularly claimed by he people who, i his day, lived i Fra ce be wee he Sei e a d he Garo e, a d who by he Roma s were called Galli, or Gauls. 5. he Cel ic ribes are said o have bee he desce da s of Gomer, he so of Japhe . he E glish his oria s agree ha he firs i habi a s of heir isla d owed heir origi a d heir la guage o he Cel a , or Gauls, who se led o he opposi e shore. Julius Casar, who i vaded Bri ai abou half a ce ury before he Chris ia era, fou d he i habi a s ig ora of le ers, a d des i u e of a y his ory bu oral radi io . o his, however, hey paid grea a e io , eachi g every hi g i verse. Some of he Druids, i is said i Casar's Comme aries, spe we y years i lear i g o repea so gs a d hym s ha were ever commi ed o wri i g. hese a cie pries s, or divi ers, are represe ed as havi g grea power, a d as exercisi g i i some respec s be eficially; bu heir horrid ri es, wi h huma sacrifices, provoked he Roma s o des roy hem. Smolle says, &quo ; iberius suppressed hose huma sacrifices i Gaul; a d Claudius des royed he Druids of ha cou ry; bu hey subsis ed i Bri ai ill he reig of ero, whe Paulus Sue o ius reduced he isla d of A glesey, which was he place of heir re rea , a d overwhelmed hem wi h such u expec ed a d sudde des ruc io , ha all heir k owledge a d radi io , co veyed o hem i he so gs of heir predecessors, perished a o ce.&quo ;-- Smolle 's His . of E g. , 4 o, B. i, Ch. i. 2. His ory of E glish la guage he Roma s co sidered Bri ai a provi ce of heir empire, for a period of abou five hu dred years; bu he or her par of he isla d was ever e irely subdued by hem, a d o ill A o Domi i 78, a hu dred a d hir y- hree years af er heir firs i vasio of he cou ry, had hey comple ed heir co ques of E gla d.

Consent & Consensus. (New York: Praeger, 1971.) Pateman, Carole. Participation and Democtaric Theory. (Cambridge University Press, 1970.) Pitkin, Hanna Fenichel, ed. Representation. (New York: Atherton Press, 1969.) Schramm, F. K. ed. The Bundestag: Legislation in the Fed eral Republic of Germany. (Bonn: E. Beinhauer, 1973.) Spufford, Peter. Origins of the English Parliament. (New York: Barnes & Noble, 1967.) POLITICS/Comparative Berkowitz, S. D., and Robert K. Logan, eds. Canada's Third Option. (Toronto: Macmillan of Canada, 1978.) Blondel, Jean. Comparing Political Systems. (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1973.) Cohen, Ronald, and John Middleton, eds. Comparative Political Systems: Studies in the Politics of Preindustrial Societies. (Garden City, N.Y.: Natural History Press, 1967.) Finer, S. E. Comparative Government. (Harmondsworth, Middlessex: Penguin Books, 1970.) Gordon, Morton. Comparative Political Systems: Managing Conflict. (New York: Macmillan, 1972.) Hamilton, Alastair. The Appeal of Fascism: A Study of Intel lectuals and Fascism 19191945. (London: Anthony Blond, 1971.) Kennedy, Gavin, ed

1. The selection and adaptation of the material on the topic "Towns and places"

2. The history of Old English and its development

3. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

4. Changes and specimens of the English language

5. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

6. History of the USA
History of the USA
7. The Life and Times of Shakespeare
The Life and Times of Shakespeare
8. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus
The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

9. Lectures in Contrastive Lexicology of the English and Ukrainian Languages

10. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

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14. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

15. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

16. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

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44. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

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83. The outline of the period

84. The theoretical basis for the international trade. The modern trends of the international trade development

85. Stylistic phonetics based on the examples of the works by P.B. Shelley

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90. Interactive method of teaching English grammar

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