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The history of grammatical study of the English language

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Министерство образования Республики Беларусь Учреждение образования «Гомельский государственный университет им. Ф. Скорины» Филологический факультет HE HIS ORY OF GRAMMA ICAL S UDY OF HE E GLISH LA GUAGE Курсовая работа Исполнитель: Студентка группы К-53 Ковалева Т.Е. Гомель 2006 СодержаниеI roduc io 1 E glish la guage 2 His ory of gramma ical s udy Co clusio Li era ure I roduc io &quo ;Gramma ica quid es ? ars rec e scribe di rec eque loque di; poe arum e arra io em co i e s; om ium Scie iarum fo s uberrimus. os ra a as parum peri a rerum ve erum, imis brevi gyro gramma icum sepsi ; a apud a iques olim a um auc ori a is hic ordo habui , u ce sores esse e judices scrip orum om ium soli gramma ici; quos ob id e iam Cri icos vocaba .&quo ;--DESPAU ER. Praf. ad Sy , fol. 1. Such is he peculiar power of la guage, ha here is scarcely a y subjec so rifli g, ha i may o hereby be plausibly mag ified i o some hi g grea ; or are here ma y hi gs which ca o be i ge iously disparaged ill hey shall seem co emp ible. Cicero goes fur her: &quo ; ihil es am i credibile quod o dice do fia probabile;&quo ;--&quo ; here is o hi g so i credible ha i may o by he power of la guage be made probable.&quo ; he s udy of grammar has bee of e overra ed, a d s ill of e er i juriously decried. I shall ei her joi wi h hose who would lesse i he public es eem ha ge eral sys em of doc ri es, which from ime immemorial has bee augh as grammar; or a emp , ei her by mag ifyi g i s prac ical resul s, or by decki g i ou wi h my ow imagi i gs, o i ves i wi h a y ar ificial or ex ra eous impor a ce. I shall o follow he foo s eps of eef, who avers ha , &quo ;Grammar a d i co grui y are ide ical hi gs,&quo ; a d who, u der pre e ce of reachi g he same e d by be er mea s, scor fully rejec s as o se se every hi g ha o hers have augh u der ha ame; because I am co vi ced, ha , of all me hods of eachi g, o e goes far her ha his, o prove he reproachful asser io rue. or shall I imi a e he declama io of Cardell ; who, a he comme ceme of his Essay, recomme ds he ge eral s udy of la guage o ear h, from he co sidera io ha , &quo ; he facul y of speech is he medium of social bliss for superior i ellige ces i a e er al world;&quo ; a d who, whe he has exhaus ed ce sure i co dem i g he prac ical i s ruc io of o hers, hus lavishes praise, i bo h his grammars, upo ha formless, void, a d i comprehe sible heory of his ow : &quo ; his applica io of words,&quo ; says he, &quo ;i heir e dless use, by o e plai rule, o all hi gs which ou s ca ame, i s ead of bei g he fi subjec of bli d cavil, is he mos sublime heme prese ed o he i ellec o ear h. I is he prac ical i ercourse of he soul a o ce wi h i s God, a d wi h all par s of his works! &quo ;-- Cardell's Gram. , 12mo, p. 87; Gram. , 18mo, p. 49. Here, i deed, a wide prospec ope s before us; bu he who races scie ce, a d eaches wha is prac ically useful, mus check imagi a io , a d be co e wi h sober ru h. &quo ;For ap he mi d or fa cy is o rove U check'd, a d of her rovi g is o e d.&quo ;--MIL O . Res ric ed wi hi i s proper limi s, a d viewed i i s rue ligh , he prac ical scie ce of grammar has a i ri sic dig i y a d meri sufficie o hrow back upo a y ma who dares ope ly assail i , he las i g s igma of folly a d self-co cei .

I is rue, he judgeme s of me are fallible, a d ma y opi io s are liable o be reversed by be er k owledge: bu wha has bee lo g es ablished by he u a imous co curre ce of he lear ed, i ca hardly be he par of a wise i s ruc or ow o dispu e. he li erary reformer who, wi h he las amed ge lema , imagi es &quo ; ha he perso s o whom he civilized world have looked up o for i s ruc io i la guage were all wro g alike i he mai poi s,&quo ; i e ds o middle course of reforma io , a d mus eeds be a ma ei her of grea meri , or of li le modes y. 1. E glish la guage he E glish la guage may ow be regarded as he commo i heri a ce of abou fif y millio s of people; who are a leas as highly dis i guished for vir ue, i ellige ce, a d e erprise, as a y o her equal por io of he ear h's popula io . All hese are more or less i eres ed i he puri y, perma e cy, a d righ use of ha la guage; i asmuch as i is o be, o o ly he medium of me al i ercourse wi h o hers for hem a d heir childre , bu he vehicle of all hey value, i he reversio of a ces ral ho our, or i he ra smissio of heir ow . I is eve imper i e , o ell a ma of a y respec abili y, ha he s udy of his his a ive la guage is a objec of grea impor a ce a d i eres : if he does o , from hese mos obvious co sidera io s, feel i o be so, he sugges io will be less likely o co vi ce him, ha o give offe ce, as co veyi g a implici ce sure. Every perso who has a y ambi io o appear respec able amo g people of educa io , whe her i co versa io , i correspo de ce, i public speaki g, or i pri , mus be aware of he absolu e ecessi y of a compe e k owledge of he la guage i which he a emp s o express his hough s. Ma y a ludicrous a ecdo e is old, of perso s ve uri g o use words of which hey did o k ow he proper applica io ; ma y a ridiculous blu der has bee published o he las i g disgrace of he wri er; a d so i ima ely does every ma 's repu a io for se se depe d upo his skill i he use of la guage, ha i is scarcely possible o acquire he o e wi hou he o her. Who ca ell how much of his ow good or ill success, how much of he favour or disregard wi h which he himself has bee rea ed, may have depe ded upo ha skill or deficie cy i grammar, of which, as of e as he has ei her spoke or wri e , he mus have afforded a cer ai a d co s a evide ce. I have before said, ha o excel i grammar, is bu o k ow be er ha o hers wherei gramma ical excelle ce co sis s; a d, as his excelle ce, whe her i he hi g i self, or i him ha a ai s o i , is merely compara ive, here seems o be o fixed poi of perfec io beyo d which such lear i g may o be carried. I speaki g or wri i g o differe perso s, a d o differe subjec s, i is ecessary o vary o e's s yle wi h grea ice y of address; a d i o hi g does rue ge ius more co spicuously appear, ha i he facili y wi h which i adop s he mos appropria e expressio s, leavi g he cri ic o faul o expose, o word o ame d. Such facili y of course supposes a i ima e k owledge of all words i commo use, a d also of he pri ciples o which hey are o be combi ed. Wi h a la guage which we are daily i he prac ice of heari g, speaki g, readi g, a d wri i g, we may cer ai ly acquire o i co siderable acquai a ce, wi hou he formal s udy of i s rules.

All he rue pri ciples of grammar were presumed o be k ow o he lear ed, before hey were wri e for he aid of lear ers; or have hey acquired a y i depe de au hori y, by bei g recorded i a book, a d de omi a ed grammar. he eachi g of hem, however, has e ded i o small degree o se le a d es ablish he co s ruc io of he la guage, o improve he s yle of our E glish wri ers, a d o e able us o ascer ai wi h more clear ess he rue s a dard of gramma ical puri y. He who lear s o ly by ro e, may speak he words or phrases which he has hus acquired; a d he who has he ge ius o discer i ui ively wha is regular a d proper, may have fur her aid from he a alogies which he hus discovers; bu he who would add o such acquisi io s he sa isfac io of k owi g wha is righ , mus make he pri ciples of la guage his s udy. o produce a able a d elega wri er, may require some hi g more ha a k owledge of grammar rules; ye i is argume e ough i favour of hose rules, ha wi hou a k owledge of hem o elega a d able wri er is produced. Who ha co siders he i fi i e umber of phrases which words i heir various combi a io s may form, a d he u er impossibili y ha hey should ever be recog ized i dividually for he purposes of i s ruc io a d cri icism, bu mus see he absolu e ecessi y of dividi g words i o classes, a d of showi g, by ge eral rules of forma io a d co s ruc io , he laws o which cus om commo ly subjec s hem, or from which she allows hem i par icular i s a ces o devia e? Grammar, or he ar of wri i g a d speaki g, mus co i ue o be lear ed by some perso s; because i is of i dispe sable use o socie y. A d he o ly ques io is, whe her childre a d you h shall acquire i by a regular process of s udy a d me hod of i s ruc io , or be lef o glea i solely from heir ow occasio al observa io of he ma er i which o her people speak a d wri e. he prac ical solu io of his ques io belo gs chiefly o pare s a d guardia s. he opi io s of eachers, o whose discre io he decisio will some imes be lef , mus have a cer ai degree of i flue ce upo he public mi d; a d he popular o io s of he age, i respec o he rela ive value of differe s udies, will doub less bias ma y o he adop io or he rejec io of his. A co sidera io of he poi seems o be appropria e here, a d I ca o forbear o comme d he s udy o he favour of my readers; leavi g every o e, of course, o choose how much he will be i flue ced by my advice, example, or argume s. If pas experie ce a d he his ory of educa io be ake for guides, he s udy of E glish grammar will o be eglec ed; a d he me hod of i s i culca io will become a objec of par icular i quiry a d solici ude. he E glish la guage ough o be lear ed a school or i colleges, as o her la guages usually are; by he s udy of i s grammar, accompa ied wi h regular exercises of parsi g, correc i g, poi i g, a d sca i g; a d by he perusal of some of i s mos accura e wri ers, accompa ied wi h s a ed exercises i composi io a d elocu io . I books of cri icism, our la guage is already more abu da ha a y o her. Some of he bes of hese he s ude should peruse, assoo as he ca u ders a d a d relish hem.

Библиография A Treatise of Stops, Points, or Pauses, and of notes which are used in Writing and Print, 1680, автор неизвестен. Robert Allen, Punctuation, Oxford University Press, 2002 Kingsley Amis, The Kings English: a guide to modern usage, HarperCollins, 1997 Tim Austin, The Times Guide to English Style and Usage, Times Books, 1999 Nicholson Baker, The History of Punctuation, in The Size of Thoughts, ChattoP& Windus, 1996 Room Temperature, Granta Books, 1990 Sven Birkerts, The Gutenberg Elegies: the fate of reading in an electronic age, Ballantine, 1994 Bill Bryson, Mother Tongue: the English language, Hamish Hamilton, 1990 Troublesome Words, third edition, Viking, 2001 R.PW. Burchfield, The New Fowlers Modern English Usage, revised third edition, Oxford University Press, 1998 Rene J. Cappon, The Associated Press Guide to Punctuation, Perseus Publishing, 2003 G.PV. Carey, Mind the Stop: a brief guide to punctuation with a note on proof-correction, Cambridge University Press, 1939 Punctuation, Cambridge University Press, 1957 David Crystal, Cambridge Encyclopedia of the English Language, Cambridge University Press, 1995 Language and the Internet, Cambridge University Press, 2001 Kay Cullen (ed.), Chambers Guide to Punctuation, Chambers, 1999 H.PW

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3. The history of railways (История железных дорог)

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