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The political thinking of Hobbes, Locke and Rousseau decisively shaped the western intellectual tradition

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I ellec ual His ory of he wes er civiliza io . Essay o he opic: 4. he poli ical hi ki g of Hobbes, Locke a d Rousseau decisively shaped he wes er i ellec ual radi io . A essay specifyi g wha I co sider he esse ial co ribu io of each of hese hi kers o poli ical philosophy. I mus explai how do hey differ from each o her. “ICEF” Firs course. Kamil Kaibyshev. Group 5. I roduc io he poli ical philosophy is he very impor a par of he philosophy. Perhaps, i has brough he mos o iceable resul s o ou everyday life, he mos famous expla a io s a d basic ideas were i roduced by homas Hobbes, Joh Locke, a d Jea -Jacques Rousseau. hey developed heories o huma ’s evolu io a d how me should gover hemselves . Hobbes, Locke, a d Rousseau were closely co ec ed wi h developi g differi g versio s of he social co rac . Each philosopher agrees ha before me came o gover hemselves, hey all exis ed i a s a e of a ure. hey crea ed a revolu io ary idea of he s a e of a ure, he rejec io of he idea ha he gover me is comi g from he heave s, hey divide he church from he au hori ies. A yway, he heme is seemed i eres i g o me because almos each of us is used o he poli ic. I is o possible do divide o eself from he poli ic. hese philosophers “worked ou pri ciples o which he moder democracy is based”, hey affec ed our life. his cause is o ly e ough o exami e a ques io i de ails. I was basically usi g he Russia la guage ma erial, my ra sla io may cause some i accuracies. I apologize for caused discomfor s. Joh Locke. Each ma , o a a ure is free, a d o hi g ca pu him i submissio of a y erres rial au hori y, excep of his ow co se . Joh Locke “Seco d rea ise o gover me ”Joh Lock described his poli ical issues i his book “Seco d rea ise o Gover me ”. Accordi g o Locke before he appeara ce of he gover me people were livi g i a a ural s a e. here was ’ war “everybody versus everybody”, like Hobbes was represe i g i his works. he i dividuals, were o aski g somebody permissio a d o depe di g o a ybody will, hey freely dispose heir proper y. he equali y domi a es, &quo ; a which a y au hori y a d a y righ are mu ual, obody has more a o her &quo ;. he a ural s a e for Locke is a s a e where people are free o work a d hey are mu ual i depe de be wee each o her. I co ras o Hobbs, Locke hough ha commu i y was co s ruc i g or co s ruc ed before he s a e, he s a e does ’ come o limi social freedom or equali y, bu o guara ee hem. o he gover me rules he a io , he a io rules i self hrough he gover me . o force he laws o work i a a ural s a e, he a ure has give everyo e a oppor u i y o judge viola ed laws a d o impose a pe al y o respassers . However i a a ural s a e here are o i s i u io s, which could impar ially solve dispu es be wee he people , o prove a d carry ou appropria e pu ishme for a aggressor .All his deriva es u cer ai y. o overcome his , o provide execu io of he a ural laws, equali y a d freedom, pro ec io of he perso a d proper y , people decided o form he poli ical commu i y, o fi d ou he s a e.

Bu , he ricky ques io derives he , if here is ’ agreeme be wee people o obey he laws how people ca come o a s a e? here are always people like he a archis s who would ’ like o follow eve he majori y of he ma ki d. Locke emphasizes he mome of he agreeme : &quo ; A y peaceful forma io of he s a e has i he basis he agreeme of he people &quo ;. Accordi g o Locke o ly he majori y of he commu i y ca do his. “ he obliga io o obey o he decisio of he majori y a d o co sider i fi al &quo ;. I hi k such co clusio s describe Locke as a very co emporary a d democra ic hi ker a his ime. A ime whe argui g wi h ki g’s word was mor ally. A o al refusal by he i dividuals of all a ural righ s, belo gi g o hem, a d freedom for he be efi of he s a e ( ha ook place, for example, i he doc ri e of Hobbes) Locke co siders u accep able. he righ o life a d possessio of proper y, freedom a d equali y he ma does o alie a e o a ybody a d a a y circums a ces hese o alie a ed values - fi al borders of au hori y a d ac io of he s a e which are prohibi ed o viola e. I especially would like o specify ha Locke more ha 300 years ago carried ou democra ic pri ciples which live so far. Live, liber y a d es a e Ц his is he co s i u io al basis of he oday’s cou ries. Locke de ied slavery, he was agai s he feudal lords. He speaks abou clear compe i io which is based o mu ual ack owledgeme . I hi k he was ryi g o explai ha busi ess is based o he mu ual rus which is very valuable hi g ow. A Equali y a d a freedom are he mai hi gs i a free marke . A yo e, eve poor or a ma wi h i ellec ual or physical lacks ca o o be excluded from a compe i io , from a free excha ge of he goods a d services. hese hi gs he offered o bri g o life by co s ruc i g a poli ical sys em a d issui g he laws. Joh Locke sugges ed o divide a poli ical power i he bra ches. Every bra ch was supposed o obey he laws. herefore we ge he jural s a e wi h doc ri e of law, a ideal which cou ries are aimi g owards eve ow. he ques io o he s a e form radi io al for he Europea poli ical idea from Aris o le i eres ed Locke as well. As I ca u ders ood Locke could accep a y form of he s a e which has grow from he public co rac a d volu ary agreeme of he people, ha i has a appropria e &quo ; s ruc ure of gover me &quo ;, pro ec i g he a ural righ s a d freedom of he i dividuals a d cari g he ge eral weal. Locke was i cli ed o co sider a co s i u io al mo archy as he mos close a poli ical sys em o be ideal. Locke de ied he Hobbs’s co cep io of absolu ism as opposi e o his views. I co clusio wi h Locke I would like o emphasize ha his ideas have ’ bee leaved i papers. He wro e a co s i u io for a or h Caroli a i 1669, which was approved a d carried i o effec . I hi k i is he mos full co fessio ha a philosopher migh receive. homas Hobbes “ he ma is a wolf for ma .” homas Hobbes Poli ical a d legal doc ri e of he Hobbes are co ai ed i his works: “ he Philosophical begi i g of he doc ri e abou he ci ize &quo ; (1642), &quo ; Levia ha , or Ma er, form a d au hori y of he s a e church a d civil &quo ; (1651).

“ . I a basis of he heory of he s a e a d righ “. Hobbes pu s a cer ai o io abou a a ure of he i dividual. He co siders ha i i ially all people are crea ed equal co cer i g physical a d i ellec ual abili ies a d each of hem has ide ical wi h o hers &quo ; he righ o all&quo ;. However ma also a esse ce is deep egois ic, i flue ced by greed, fear a d ambi io . he co e ders, he e emies surrou d him o ly. &quo ;I co di io s of such war - mea s ac ually do o have a y righ o a y hi g. his dis ress “. Hobbes ames &quo ; a origi al co di io of a sor huma &quo ;. Hobbes u ders a ds a origi al s a e as wha would exis if here were o commo power o execu e a d e force he laws o res rai i dividuals. I his case, he laws of he ju gle would prevail where he war “all versus all” is. People’s desires are greedy. Si ce resources are scarce, huma ki d is a urally compe i ive, all his lead o he i evi able war. his co s a s a e of war is wha Hobbes’ believes o be ma ’s origi al s a e of a ure. Accordi g o Hobbes, ma ca o be rus ed i he s a e of a ure. Limi s a d bou ds are pu o he righ s of he people. Locke u derli es a oppor u i y of huma bea s o divide good a d bad a d cer ai ly, he se se of a proper y is i side everyo e, he differe ce be wee wha is heirs a d wha belo gs o someo e else. Hobbes has bee hi ki g a o her way. I co rary, i a s a e of a ure obody k ows wha is heirs a d wha is belo gs o someo e else, accordi g o Hobbes. Proper y exis s solely by he will of he s a e. He proceeds co s a ly from he o peaceful ideas. Me is o able o divide good a d evil like Locke hi ks. herefore ca o ly live i peace oge her by subjec io o he absolu e power of a commo mas er, he ce here ca be o peace be wee ki gs. Peace be wee s a es is merely war by o her mea s. o e d he era of u cer ai y a d of he fu k bei g killed by your rivals Hobbes se up a s a e. A s a e ca be fou d ei her by he agreeme of he socie y of by he force of he ruler. he idea of dividi g powers of he s a e is comple ely de ied by Hobbes. he absolu e power Ц he o ly possible way of ruli g. he preroga ives sovereig s are i divisible a d are o ra smi ed o a ybody. o divide au hori y of he s a e, mea s, o des roy i , as he divided au hori ies mu ually des roy each o her &quo ;. he au hori y of he sovereig is ac ually his mo opoly o life a d dea h of his people; &quo ; every hi g, wha he Supreme represe a ive has made i rela io o he ci ize u der a y pre ex , ca o be co sidered as i jus ice or lawless ess i ow se se &quo ;. I would like o poi ou his idea, i was proved ha his way is o ally wro g o rule. Fascism, S ali ism a d he decade of Mousalli i bri g so ma y evil, sufferi g a d millio s of vic ims of i s regimes. Moreover, Hobbes u ders a ds ha his approach would be erribly face by people, however he co i ue o persuade. &quo ; I absolu e au hori y here is o hi g burde some, ha he huma es ablishme s ca o exis wi hou some i co ve ie ces. hese i co ve ie ces depe d o he ci ize s, i s ead of from au hori y. ”E courageme of a y sor craf s, as aviga io , agricul ure, fishery, a d all i dus ries showi g dema d for worki g ha ds .&

As a result, it was easier for these countries to embrace democracy by, in effect, adding a new political layer to coexist along with the older Confucian traditions and practices. It will certainly be possible for China to do the same, but the weight of what might be described as Confucian orthodoxy is likely to make it more difficult. [642] In the long run it seems rather unlikely, given the underlying pressures for democracy that exist within increasingly sophisticated, diverse and prosperous societies, that China will be able to resist the process of democratization. The interesting question is what democracy might look like in China. There is a strong tendency in the West to view democracy in terms of a вАШone size fits allвАЩ approach. In fact, the form of democracy varies greatly according to the history, traditions and culture of a society. There is no reason to believe, except on grounds of Eurocentrism, that the very specific conditions that shaped European society (and European-derived nations like the United States), and therefore European democracy, will result in the same kind of democratic structures elsewhere. [643] This is abundantly clear in the case of Japan

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99. Problems of city and country life


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