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Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

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Курсовую работу выполнила: Финогеева Арина, студентка группы №402 Московский педагогический государственный университет им. В.И. Ленина Москва, 1998 PLA I roduc io . he his ory of Bri ai ’s rela io s wi h i s “wa erworld”.Why did i i spire he emerge ce of he rich E glish folklore ? he wa er world i he E glish folklore : ales, s ories fears, prejudices, poems co ec ed wi h seas, rivers, lakes a d heir i habi a s. he E glish a io ’s a emp a ryi g o preserve i s precious “wa erworld” bo h as he a ural resource a d  he cul ural i heri a ce. Co clusio . he Bri ish are a mos curious a io i ma y aspec s. Whe a ouris from wha ever co i e comes o visi Bri ai he firs co clusio he arrives a is how bizarre he people livi g here are. he mai reaso o heir u ique ess will cer ai ly lie o he surface: Grea Bri ai is a isla d popula ed by he a io ha had o grow up a d go all he lo g way of i s his ory alo e bei g separa ed from he res of he world by grea amou s of wa er. his very charac eris ics ur ed hem i o o o ly a curious a io , bu also a i eres i g a d special o e, whose his ory a d cul ure are o e of he riches i he world. A d he wa er surrou di g he isla d played o a mi or par i i s formi g. So he Bri ish people respec a d cherish heir “wa ery” eighbour who from he earlies s ages of heir his ory up o ow gave hem food, dri k, work, power, respec of o her a io s, weal h a d af er all e er ai me . I i spired a huge umber of s ories, ales, poems, supers i io s a d prejudicies a d i has always bee worshipped by he people. he s udies of he Bri ish cul ure a d herefore u ders a di g of he a io al charac er of he E glish ca o s a d apar from he research of i s impor a produc – folklore. By cul ure we mea he resul of he social ac ivi y of people. Every ew ge era io his orically bri gs i s piece i o he whole process of he developme of cul ure of his or ha a io ; so cul ure collec s he values expressed hrough differe mea s: li era ure, archi ec ure, music, sculp ure, radi io s, cuisi e, e c. Cul ural developme of he a io is esse ial for he developme of every perso belo gi g o i , because his u ders a di g a d percep i g of he world is formed accordi g o he socie y he grows up i a d is i flue ced by he orms a d values of his socie y. Ar s i ge eral are always mea o bri g beau y i o he life of people a d educa e hem hrough i , make hem be er, ki der a d wiser. a io al folklore is o excep io i his  se se. Eve if i very of e does o have a huma bei g as he ce ral figure i s ill bri g forward e hical ques io s, s udies huma soul, i s moral quali ies. Accep i g his aspec presupposes ha we realize he educa io al side of he folkloric charac ers a d u ders a d wha heir crea ors wa ed o ell us, or war abou , or wha ki d of a ideal hey mea o form up. However, each folkloric hero or charac er is a mix ure of a umber of differe quali ies a d i s a ure is o always clear a d easy o i erpre er. herefore he aim a d he mea i g of a charac er should be searched for i jus o e side of i s complica ed sema ics. So he aim of his work is o make a research i he par of a rich field of he Bri ish folklore co cer i g Bri ish wa er world hrough he mea s of so gs, poems, s ories, lege ds, fears, supers i io s, ales.

Wi h he help of his ma erial we shall s udy he cha ges a d developme of he E glish charac er, la guage, his ory a d cul ure. Chap er 1 he field of he cou ry’s eco omy co ec ed wi h wa er was always a grea co cer for hose who ruled i for hey a urally a ached much impor a ce o i . From he imes whe he E glish socie y was bei g bor a d o ly begi i g o ake shape ki gs already would i eres hemselves i he co di io s of radi g across he sea. I he eleve h ce ury C u o a pilgrimage o Rome ook he oppor u i y of ob ai i g from he Emperor a d o her rulers he me here grea er securi y a d reduc io of alls for his subjec s, raders a d o hers, ravelli g i heir la ds. Already i he eigh h ce ury a E glish mercha called Bo a was se led a Marceilles, perhaps as a age for collec i g goods o be sold i E gla d. he Viki g rades of he la e eigh h  a d i h ce uries disrup ed rade o he Co i e , bu E glishme may well have ake par i he Bal ic rade ope ed up by his ime. A leas , here is o reaso o de y E glish a io ali y o a cer ai Wulfs a who described o Ki g Alfred a jour ey ake o he Frisches Haff; he has a E glish ame. O he o her ha d, we hear of foreig raders i E gla d from early imes. Bede speaks of Lo do as he “mar of ma y a io s, resor i g o i by sea a d la d”, a d me io s he purchase of a cap ive by a Frisia mercha i Lo do . Bu he s ro ges evide ce for he amou of sea raffic i Frisia ha ds is he assump io of a A glo-Saxo poe ha a seama is likely o have a Frisia wife: Dear is he welcome gues o he Frisia woma whe he ship comes o la d. His ship is come a d her husba d, her ow bread – wi er, is a home, a d she i vi es him i , washes his s ai ed raime a d gives him ew clo hes, gra s him o la d wha his love dema ds. Me from o her la ds came also. A he e d of he e h ce ury a docume deali g wi h rade i Lo do speaks of me from Roue , Fla ders, Po hieu, orma dy, Fra ce; from abou he same da e comes a descrip io of York as he resor of mercha s from all quar ers, especially Da es. he mercha s a d seame plied a ho oured rade. he poe s speak wi h apprecia io of he seama “who ca boldly drive he ship across he sal sea” or “ca s eer he s em o he dark wave, k ows he curre s, (bei g) he pilo of he compa y over he wide ocea ”, a d i was a leas a curre opi io i he early eleve h ce ury ha he mercha who had crossed he sea hree imes a his ow cos should be e i led o a ha e’s ra k. he mercha i Aelfric’s “Colloquy” s resses he da gers of his lo : I go  o board my ship wi h my freigh a d row over he regio s of he sea, a d sell my goods a d buy precious hi gs which are o produced i his la d, a d I bri g i hi her o you wi h grea da ger over he sea, a d some imes I suffer shipwreck wi h he loss of all my goods, barely escapi g wi h my life. As we see people worki g i he sea or over he seas gai ed much respec i he socie y a d were loved by  o hers. Bu so much for he eco omical aspec . he wa er, as we already me io ed earlier, was o e of he grea es a rac io s as a source of e er ai me . Fishi g, like hu i g, was highly popular i E gla d, bu hese were pleasures reserved for he obili y.

I he welf h ce ury, whe he ki gs had ormally bee so s ro g, hey had claimed such oppressive fishi g – righ s ha all he classes had u i ed i pro es . O e of he dema ds of he rebels i 1381 was ha hu i g a d fishi g should be commo o all; o o ly was his refused, bu i 1390 Parliame e ac ed a pe al y for o e year’s impriso me for everyo e who should presume o keep hu i g – dogs or use ferre s or s ares o ca ch deer, rabbi s, or a y o her game. Fishi g a d hu i g, said he s a u e, was he spor for ge lefolk. So his is a sce ch or a ou li e of reaso s explai i g why our a ces ors valued so much he rivers, lakes, seas of heir la d – a d i is wor h me io i g ha heir la d abou ds i all ha – a d why hey respec ed he work of sailors, mercha s or ravellers. All his is impor a for he u ders a di g of how i was becomi g a i separable par of heir cul ure a d how i is reflec ed i heir cul ure. Chap er 2 Wha is folklore?  Fu k a d Wag all’s “S a dard Dic io ary of Folklore, My hology a d Lege d” (1972) offers a s aggeri g 22 defi i io s, ru i g o half a doze pages. I rece years defi i io s have e ded o be all – embraci g i heir simplici y: folklore is made up of “ he radi io al s ories, cus oms a d habi s of a par icular commu i y or a io ” says he “Colli s Cobuild Dic io ary” of 1987. More specific defi i io s also abou d; perhaps, folklore should be ide ified as he commu i y’s commi me o mai ai i g s ories, cus oms a d habi s purely for heir ow sake. ( A perfec example of his would be he famous horse race a Sie a i I aly: he   p a l i o   a rac s ma y housa ds of ouris s, ye if o a si gle ou sider a e d, he people of he commu i y would s ill suppor he eve year af er year). Bu wha abou hose eve s or beliefs which have bee rece ly i i ia ed or which are sus ai ed for reaso s of commercial gai or ourism? Ma y cus oms are o as a cie as heir par icipa s may claim bu i would be foolish o dismiss hem as irreleva . Some appare ly a cie cus oms are, i fac , rela ively moder , bu does his mea hey ca o be ermed as folklore? he spec acular fire fes ival a Alle dale, for i s a ce, feels u erly au he ic despi e he fac ha here is o record of he eve prior o 1853. here are ma y o her cases of ew eve s or s ories which have rapidly assumed orga ic grow h a d herefore deserve he s a us of bei g recog ised as folklore. A y work coveri g he ques io of folklore mus be selec ive, bu here we shall a emp o explore a d celebra e he varie y a d vigour of Bri ai ’s folklore co cer i g “wa erworld” radi io s, beliefs a d supers i io s. A wide geographical area is covered: E gla d, Sco la d a d Wales wi h some refere ce o Irela d a d o her erri ories. E ire books – i deed, whole libraries of books – have bee wri e o every aspec of folklore: o epi aphs a d wea her lore, folk medici e a d cale dar cus oms, radi io al drama a d spor s a d pas imes, supers i io s, ghos s a d wi chcraf , fairs, sea mo s ers a d ma y o hers. While ryi g o cram much i o li le work I have avoided ge eralisa io . Precise de ails such as ames, da es a d locali ies are give wherever possible a d here are some refere ces o fea ures ha s ill ca be see -  a mou ai , a bridge, a s a di g s o e or a carvi g i a church.

A glance into the classrooms of the Los Angeles public school system, where my sons are being educated, fleshes out the abstract debates with the faces of children. Those children represent over 80 languages spoken in the home, with English-speaking whites in the minority. Every single one of my sons' playmates has at least one parent or grandparent who was born outside the United States; that's true of three of my own sons' four grandparents. But immigration is merely restoring the diversity that America held for thousands of years. Before European settlement, the mainland United States was home to hundreds of Native American tribes and languages and came under control of a single government only within the last hundred years. In these respects the United States is a thoroughly "normal" country. All but one of the world's six most populous nations are melting pots that achieved political unification recently, and that still support hundreds of languages and ethnic groups. For example, Russia, once a small Slavic state centered on Moscow, did not even begin its expansion beyond the Ural Mountains until a.d. 1582

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2. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

3. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

4. The History of English

5. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

6. The system of english tenses
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7. The history of English
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8. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

9. Higher Education in The U.K.

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11. Education in the Middle Ages

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15. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind... Пастернак и нравственная дилемма послереволюционной интеллигенции

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18. Science in the 20th century

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26. Islam in the eyes of the West

27. Sport and recreation in the United States

28. Problem of Synonyms in the Translation

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42. Lexicology of the English Language

43. Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

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82. Aaliyah (Haughton) 1979 -- 2001 english

83. Renaissanc english

84. Шекспир english

85. Такахаси Наоко english

86. Harri Jogisalu english
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87. Современные электронные средства массовой информации english
88. Остров Пасхи english

89. Should press de liable or not english

90. 2 сочинения по английскому языку english

91. Scotland /english/

92. Всесторонний Доход english

93. Поиск границы между востоком и западом english

94. Исследование системы относительно глобальной геополитики и решения конфликта english

95. Топик по иностранному языку english

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