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A Farewell to Arms
SOME I FO O ER ES HEMI GWAY he firs so of Clare ce Edmo ds Hemi gway, a doc or, a d Grace Hall Hemi gway, Er es Miller Hemi gway was bor i a suburb of Chicago. He was educa ed i he public schools a d bega o wri e i high school, where he was ac ive a d ou s a di g, bu he par s of his boyhood ha ma ered mos were summers spe wi h his family o Walloo Lake i upper Michiga . O gradua io from high school i 1917, impa ie for a less shel ered e viro me , he did o e er college bu we o Ka sas Ci y, where he was employed as a repor er for he S ar. He was repea edly rejec ed for mili ary service because of a defec ive eye, bu he ma aged o e er World War I as a ambula ce driver for he America Red Cross. O July 8, 1918, o ye 19 years old, he was i jured o he Aus ro-I alia fro a Fossal a di Piave. Decora ed for heroism a d hospi alized i Mila , he fell i love wi h a Red Cross urse, Ag es vo Kurowsky, who decli ed o marry him. hese were experie ces he was ever o forge . Af er recupera i g a home, Hemi gway re ewed his effor s a wri i g, for a while worked a odd jobs i Chicago, a d sailed for Fra ce as a foreig correspo de for he oro o S ar. Advised a d e couraged by o her America wri ers i Paris--F. Sco Fi zgerald, Ger rude S ei , Ezra Pou d--he bega o see his o jour alis ic work appear i pri here, a d i 1923 his firs impor a book, a collec io of s ories called I Our ime, was published i ew York Ci y. I 1926 he published he Su Also Rises, a ovel wi h which he scored his firs solid success. A pessimis ic bu sparkli g book, i deals wi h a group of aimless expa ria es i Fra ce a d Spai --members of he pos war "los ge era io ," a phrase ha Hemi gway scor ed while maki g i famous. his work also i roduced him o he limeligh , which he bo h craved a d rese ed for he res of his life. Hemi gway's he orre s of Spri g, a parody of he America wri er Sherwood A derso 's book Dark Laugh er, also appeared i 1926. he wri i g of books occupied him for mos of he pos war years. He remai ed based i Paris, bu he raveled widely for he skii g, bullfigh i g, fishi g, or hu i g ha by he had become par of his life a d formed he backgrou d for much of his wri i g. His posi io as a mas er of shor fic io had bee adva ced by Me Wi hou Wome i 1927 a d horoughly es ablished wi h he s ories i Wi er ake o hi g i 1933. Amo g his fi es s ories are " he Killers," " he Shor Happy Life of Fra cis Macomber," a d " he S ows of Kilima jaro." A leas i he public view, however, he ovel A Farewell o Arms (1929) overshadowed such works. Reachi g back o his experie ce as a you g soldier i I aly, Hemi gway developed a grim bu lyrical ovel of grea power, fusi g love s ory wi h war s ory. While servi g wi h he I alia ambula ce service duri g World War I, he America lieu e a Frederic He ry falls i love wi h he E glish urse Ca heri e Barkley, who e ds him duri g his recupera io af er bei g wou ded. She becomes preg a by him, bu he mus re ur o his pos . He ry deser s duri g he I alia s' disas rous re rea af er he Ba le of Capore o, a d he reu i ed couple flee I aly by crossi g he border i o Swi zerla d.
here, however, Ca heri e a d her baby die duri g childbir h, leavi g He ry desola e a he loss of he grea love of his life. Hemi gway's love of Spai a d his passio for bullfigh i g resul ed i Dea h i he Af er oo (1932), a lear ed s udy of a spec acle he saw more as ragic ceremo y ha as spor . Similarly, a safari he ook i 1933-34 i he big-game regio of a ga yika resul ed i he Gree Hills of Africa (1935), a accou of big-game hu i g. Mos ly for he fishi g, he bough a house i Key Wes , Florida, a d bough his ow fishi g boa . A mi or ovel of 1937 called o Have a d Have o is abou a Caribbea desperado a d is se agai s a backgrou d of lower-class viole ce a d upper-class decade ce i Key Wes duri g he Grea Depressio .By ow Spai was i he mids of civil war. S ill deeply a ached o ha cou ry, Hemi gway made four rips here, o ce more a correspo de . He raised mo ey for he Republica s i heir s ruggle agai s he a io alis s u der Ge eral Fra cisco Fra co, a d he wro e a play called he Fif h Colum (1938), which is se i besieged Madrid. As i ma y of his books, he pro ago is of he play is based o he au hor. Followi g his las visi o he Spa ish war he purchased Fi ca Vigia ("Lookou Farm"), a u pre e ious es a e ou side Hava a, Cuba, a d we o cover a o her war-- he Japa ese i vasio of Chi a. he harves of Hemi gway's co siderable experie ce of Spai i war a d peace was he ovel For Whom he Bell olls (1940), a subs a ial a d impressive work ha some cri ics co sider his fi es ovel, i prefere ce o A Farewell o Arms. I was also he mos successful of all his books as measured i sales. Se duri g he Spa ish Civil War, i ells of Rober Jorda , a America volu eer who is se o joi a guerrilla ba d behi d he a io alis li es i he Guadarrama Mou ai s. Mos of he ovel co cer s Jorda 's rela io s wi h he varied perso ali ies of he ba d, i cludi g he girl Maria, wi h whom he falls i love. hrough dialogue, flashbacks, a d s ories, Hemi gway offers elli g a d vivid profiles of he Spa ish charac er a d u spari gly depic s he cruel y a d i huma i y s irred up by he civil war. Jorda 's missio is o blow up a s ra egic bridge ear Segovia i order o aid a comi g Republica a ack, which he realizes is doomed o fail. I a a mosphere of impe di g disas er, he blows up he bridge bu is wou ded a d makes his re rea i g comrades leave him behi d, where he prepares a las -mi u e resis a ce o his a io alis pursuers.All of his life Hemi gway was fasci a ed by war--i A Farewell o Arms he focused o i s poi less ess, i For Whom he Bell olls o he comradeship i crea es--a d as World War II progressed he made his way o Lo do as a jour alis . He flew several missio s wi h he Royal Air Force a d crossed he E glish Cha el wi h America roops o D-Day (Ju e 6, 1944). A achi g himself o he 22 d Regime of he 4 h I fa ry Divisio , he saw a good deal of ac io i orma dy a d i he Ba le of he Bulge. He also par icipa ed i he libera io of Paris a d, al hough os e sibly a jour alis , he impressed professio al soldiers o o ly as a ma of courage i ba le bu also as a real exper i mili ary ma ers, guerrilla ac ivi ies, a d i ellige ce collec io .F
ollowi g he war i Europe, Hemi gway re ur ed o his home i Cuba a d bega o work seriously agai . He also raveled widely, a d o a rip o Africa he was i jured i a pla e crash. Soo af er (i 1953), he received he Puli zer Prize i fic io for he Old Ma a d he Sea (1952), a shor , heroic ovel abou a old Cuba fisherma who, af er a ex e ded s ruggle, hooks a d boa s a gia marli o ly o have i ea e by voracious sharks duri g he lo g voyage home. his book, which played a role i gai i g for Hemi gway he obel Prize for Li era ure i 1954, was as e husias ically praised as his previous ovel, Across he River a d i o he rees (1950), he s ory of a professio al army officer who dies while o leave i Ve ice, had bee dam ed.By 1960 Fidel Cas ro's revolu io had drive Hemi gway from Cuba. He se led i Ke chum, Idaho, a d ried o lead his life a d do his work as before. For a while he succeeded, bu , a xie y-ridde a d depressed, he was wice hospi alized a he Mayo Cli ic i Roches er, Mi eso a, where he received elec roshock rea me s. wo days af er his re ur o he house i Ke chum, he ook his life wi h a sho gu . Hemi gway had married four imes a d fa hered hree so s.He lef behi d a subs a ial amou of ma uscrip , some which has bee published. A Moveable Feas , a e er ai i g memoir of his years i Paris (1921-26) before he was famous, was issued i 1964. Isla ds i he S ream, hree closely rela ed ovellas growi g direc ly ou of his peace ime memories of he Caribbea isla d of Bimi i, of Hava a duri g World War II, a d of searchi g for U-boa s off Cuba, appeared i 1970.Hemi gway's charac ers plai ly embody his ow values a d view of life. he mai charac ers of he Su Also Rises, A Farewell o Arms, a d For Whom he Bell olls are you g me whose s re g h a d self-co fide ce ever heless coexis wi h a se si ivi y ha leaves hem deeply scarred by heir war ime experie ces. War was for Hemi gway a po e symbol of he world, which he viewed as complex, filled wi h moral ambigui ies, a d offeri g almos u avoidable pai , hur , a d des ruc io . o survive i such a world, a d perhaps emerge vic orious, o e mus co duc o eself wi h ho our, courage, e dura ce, a d dig i y, a se of pri ciples k ow as " he Hemi gway code." o behave well i he lo ely, losi g ba le wi h life is o show "grace u der pressure" a d co s i u es i i self a ki d of vic ory, a heme clearly es ablished i he Old Ma a d he Sea.Hemi gway's prose s yle was probably he mos widely imi a ed of a y i he 20 h ce ury. He wished o s rip his ow use of la guage of i esse ials, riddi g i of all races of verbosi y, embellishme , a d se ime ali y. I s rivi g o be as objec ive a d ho es as possible, Hemi gway hi upo he device of describi g a series of ac io s usi g shor , simple se e ces from which all comme or emo io al rhe oric have bee elimi a ed. hese se e ces are composed largely of ou s a d verbs, have few adjec ives a d adverbs, a d rely o repe i io a d rhy hm for much of heir effec . he resul i g erse, co ce ra ed prose is co cre e a d u emo io al ye is of e reso a a d capable of co veyi g grea iro y hrough u ders a eme .
My lips once more met hers, and now I felt my cock throb and stiffen in a last farewell manifestation of its hunger for Marion’s sweet, hot, encompassing flesh. I kissed her on the mouth and let my tongue roam at will, and she answered as avidly as I. My hands slipped down from her breasts to caress the insides of her olive-sheened upper thighs, and soon I had my forefinger on the twitching lips of her cunt again and was delving to find the clitoris. Marion’s breath came quickly now, erratically, and she moaned and tried to clench her thighs together. But my finger had taken its inroads and it was already far too late for her to make such a defensive maneuver. Squirming on that lovely bottom of hers, leaning back, her eyes closed, she moaned as my finger plied her love-button with the most insidious touchings and caresses. “And one thing more, Marion,” I remarked as I ended a long, passionate kiss which left her quivering in my arms, “once you have helped me strip and smack this naughty maid of yours, you can, if you wish, reconcile yourself with her in the manner I have just described, and she will be your sweet prisoner of love.” “Oh dear Heavens! What you say is so outlandish and naughty that I ought to be terribly vexed with you,” she panted, but again the flash in her dark blue eyes would have me believe that she did not find my words so terrible after all
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