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American System of Education

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Министерство образования Саратовской области Муниципальное общеобразовательное учреждение Лицея № 37 Фрунзенского района America Sys em of Educa io Творческая работа: Учащейся 11 «А» класса МОУ Лицея № 37 Шилиной Ксении Андреевны Научный руководитель: Учитель английского языка Батушанская Ольга Михайловна Саратов, 2009 г Co e s I I roduc io 2.1 His orical Backgrou d 2.2 A Brief Accou of America Educa io : Differe ces a d Similari ies 2.3 S a dards 2.4 America School from he Poi of View of Russia ee agers 2.5 Wha America S ude s hi k of heir Educa io al Sys em 2.6 Alum i’s Experie ce 3 Co clusio Lis of Li era ure 1 I roduc io Oxford Adva ced Lear er’s Dic io ary of E glish gives he followi g defi i io of educa io : “A process of eachi g, rai i g a d lear i g, especially i schools or colleges, o improve k owledge a d developi g skills”. o serve heir ci ize s a d help he cou ry prosper all cou ries i he world wi hou excep io provide public educa io o childre a d ee agers as o e of i s mai goals is o prepare s ude s for produc ive ci ize ship, work a d adul life. All his makes he o io of educa io u iversal while each cou ry has i s ow sys em of educa io de ermi ed by i s his ory, poli ical sys em, cul ure, radi io s a d so o . he collapse of he iro cur ai , moder ech ological developme s like he I er e a d abili y o ravel he world e able Russia s ude s a d educa ors o ge more or less good idea of educa io al sys em of E glish speaki g cou ries. he expa sio of America cul ure, domi a ce of America movies o elevisio familiarizes Russia viewers a d movie-goers wi h life of America ee agers a d America school. However a survey co duc ed amo g he high school s ude s of Lyceum 37 proved ha heir aware ess of America educa io al sys em leaves much o be desired. So we have decided o exami e he sys em of America educa io from differe a gles; ha of he official sources such as Close up Fou da io publica io s, America s ude s a d Russia par icipa s of excha ge programs a d compare i o he opi io s of Russia high school s ude s. Besides he above me io ed publica io s a d public survey our research is based o he comme s o America school sys em made by he s ude s of he Su Prairie High School, Su Prairie, Wisco si . 2.1 His orical Backgrou d America s have always valued educa io . hey have show grea co cer for i si ce early colo ial imes. Amo g he firs se lers, i fac , here was a u usually high propor io of educa ed me . I he Massachuse s Bay colo y i early 1600s, as he Bri ish his oria Rouse poi ed ou , “ here was a average of o e u iversi y ma o every 40 or 50 families – much higher ha i Old E gla d”. I 1647 Massachuse s passed he law which required all ow s wi h more ha 50 families o provide a schoolmas er a public expe se. I ra like his: “I is bei g o e chief projec of ha old deluder Sa a o keep me from he k owledge of he Scrip ures by persuadi g from he use of o gues ha lear i g may o be buried i he graves of our fa hers i he church a d commo weal h, he Lord assis i g our e deavors: I is herefore ordered ha every ow ship i his jurisdic io , af er he Lord has i creased hem o he umber of 50 householders, shall he for hwi h appoi o e wi hi he ow o ech all such childre as shall resor o him o wri e a d read, whose wages shall be paid ei her by he pare s or mas ers of such childre , or by he i habi a s i ge eral ”1 A d i was fur her ordered ha “where a y ow shall i crease o he umber of 100 families or householders, hey shall se up a grammar school, he mas er hereof bei g able o i s ruc you h so far as hey may be fi es for he u iversi y ” O her colo ies also made provisio s for free public schools.

I he course of he 17 h ce ury, for i s a ce, free schools were es ablished i a umber of places such as ew Have , Har ford, ew Lo do a d Fairfield. Ma y academies (schools offeri g a classical educa io ) ope ed hroughou he ex ce ury, i cludi g he o e es ablished by Be jami Fra kli i Philadelphia i 1751. I is see from he above me io ed ha he Puri a s viewed educa io as a impor a mea s of passi g o religious eachi gs. However ma y America s hoped ha publicly suppor ed schools would wipe ou he legacy of he Bri ish sys em,1 A derso E.A., A derso . J. Le Freedom Ri g, a U i ed S a es His ory. Silver Budge Compa y, 1977, p. 276 i which he abili y o read a d wri e separa ed he eco omic classes. he impor a ce of educa io i America life was also reflec ed i he Ordi a ces of 1785 a d 1787 which se guideli es for orga izi g he ew la ds o he wes . hey provided for o e square mile of la d i each ow ship o be reserved for public schools. By 1859, every s a e had provided for a sys em of free public schools ope o all a d paid by public axes. Si ce i s i cep io i he mid-1800s he a io ’s public school sys em has also helped millio s of immigra childre lear he la guage a d skills ecessary o succeed i heir ew cou ry. I goes wi hou sayi g ha a grea deal of he eco omic, poli ical, scie ific, a d cul ural progress America has made i i s rela ively shor his ory is due o i s commi me o he ideal of equal oppor u i y. I his respec o e ca ’ bu me io he la dmark case of Brow V Board of Educa io of opeka, Ka sas (1954) i which he U.S. Supreme Cour ruled ha racially segrega ed public schools were u co s i u io al. La er cour decisio s ordered schools o desegrega e. o comply, ma y school dis ric s bega bussi g s ude s o schools ou side heir eighborhoods o bri g oge her childre of differe races a d e h ic backgrou ds. he aim of America educa io o educa e as ma y America s as possible o he bes of heir abili ies is proved by rece legisla io , i cludi g school voucher program, which e ables s ude s a e d a public school ou side heir eighborhoods, a d o Child Lef Behi d law passed by Co gress i 2001. he la er reflec s ma y of Preside George W. Bush’s educa io i i ia ives, a d aims o close achieveme gaps amo g s ude s from differe e h ic a d socioeco omic backgrou ds, as well as amo g hose wi h special eeds or lear i g disabili ies. he belief ha he fu ure of socie y depe ds o he qua i y a d quali y of i s educa ed ci ize s makes i clear why a grea ma y America s are s ill willi g o give more mo ey o educa io . 2.2 A Brief Accou of America Educa io : Differe ces a d Similari ies Every America is e i led o a educa io . School a e da ce is compulsory for all childre . S ude s a e d school five o seve hours a day, five days a week for i e mo hs each year, from Sep ember o Ju e. Public educa io from ki dergar e hrough grade 12 is ax-suppor ed; o ui io is required. Abou 85 per ce of America childre a e d public schools. he o her 15 perce choose o pay ui io fees o a e d priva e schools. he la er o es are mos ly ru by religious orga iza io s a d ge erally i clude religious i s ruc io .

I spi e of he above said he U i ed S a es do o have a a io al sys em of educa io . Educa io is co sidered o be a ma er for he people of each s a e. Al hough here is a Federal Depar me of Educa io , i s fu c io is merely o ga her i forma io , o advice, a d o help fi a ce cer ai educa io al programs. Educa io , America s say, is “a a io al co cer , a s a e respo sibili y, a d a local fu c io ”. As a resul , each of he 50 s a e legisla ures is free o de ermi e i s ow sys em for i s ow public schools. I ur , however, s a e co s i u io gives he ac ual admi is ra ive co rol of he public schools o local commu i ies. here are some 16000 school dis ric s wi hi he 50 s a es. School boards made up of i dividual ci ize s elec ed from each commu i y oversee he schools i each dis ric . hey, o he s a e, se school policy a d ac ually decide wha is o be augh . he major resul of he dece realiza io is ha here is e ormous amou of varie y a d flexibili y i eleme ary a d seco dary educa io hroughou he a io . I public schools, decisio s abou school curriculum, eacher cer ifica io , a d s ude achieveme s a dards are made by Boards of Educa io a he s a e a d/or dis ric level. For example, al hough all s a es oday require ha childre a e d school u il a cer ai age, i varies from 14 o 18 years. Or, as a o her example, i abou 60 per ce of he s a es, local schools are free o choose a y eachi g ma erials or ex books which hey hi k are appropria e. I he remai i g s a es, o ly such eachi g ma erials may be used i public schools which have bee approved by he s a e boards of educa io . Some school sys ems require ha a high school s ude comple es hree years of ma hema ics, before gradua io . he a io al average however is lower. Fu di g for schools is a o her source of differe ce. Commu i ies a d s a es ha are able or willi g o pay more for school buildi gs, ma erials, a d eachers, almos always have be er educa io al sys ems ha hose ha ca o or do o . Because of he grea varie y of schools, a d he ma y differe ces amo g hem, o o e i s i u io ca be si gled ou as ypical or represe a ive. Ye here are e ough basic similari ies i s ruc ure amo g various schools a d sys ems o permi some ge eral comme s. Mos schools s ar a he ki dergar e level. here are some school dis ric s ha do o have his begi i g phase, a d o hers which have a addi io al “pre-school” o e. Eleme ary (primary) a d seco dary (high) schools are orga ized o o e or wo bases: eigh years of eleme ary school a d four years of seco dary school, or six years of eleme ary, hree years of ju ior high school a d hree years of se ior high school. Al hough here is o a io al curriculum here are almos always required subjec s a each level. Primary school childre i he U i ed S a es lear much he same hi gs as do childre of he same age i o her cou ries. Almos every eleme ary school i s ruc s childre i pe ma ship, scie ce, ma hema ics, music, ar , physical educa io , la guage ar s (which i clude readi g, wri i g a d grammar), a d social s udies (which i clude geography, his ory, a d ci ize ship).

Ames and Nathan Rosenberg, «Enfield Arsenal in Theory and History», Economic Journal 78 (1968): 825 — 42; Russell i. Fries, «British Response to the American System: The Case of the Small Arms Industry After 1850», Technology and Culture 16 (1975): 377–403. 311 O. F. G. Hogg, Royal Arsenal 2:783, 792. 312 S. B. Saul, «The Market and the Development of the Mechanical Engineering Industries in Britain», Economic History Review 20 (1967): 111 — 30; Fries, «British Response to American System»; Conrad Gill, History of Birmingham: Manor and Borough to 1865 (London, 1952), p. 295. 313 Во всяком случае, именно этим гордится Charles H. Fitch, «Report on the Manufacture of Interchangeable Mechanisms», U. S. Congress, Miscellaneous Documents of the House of Representatives, 4th Cong., 2d sess. 1882 — 82, 13, pt. 2:613 — 14. К сожалению, Фитч не приводит подробностей, а я не смог найти подтверждающих материалов по всем покупателям. 314 Claude Gaier, Four Centuries of Liege Gunmaking (London, 1977), p. 122. 315 Ibid., pp. 190 — 95. 316 Dennis Showalter, Railroads and Rifles, pp. 81–82, 95–98; Curt Jany, Geschichte der Koniglich Preussischen Armee (Berlin, 1928 — 37) 4:199–202. 317 John D

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3. Political System of the USA

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99. Council of Europe


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