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Ёкономика и ‘инансы Ёкономика и ‘инансы

Creating Market Economy in Eastern Europe

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66 руб
–аздел: ѕрочее

A ual Paper of УWorld Eco omiesФ УCrea i g Marke Eco omy i Eas er EuropeФ ѕ–»ћ≈„јЌ»≈: –аздел 3 данной курсовой работы и имеет отношение только к нашей республике, просьба обратить на это внимание и дл€ каждого конкретного случа€ его необходимо переделывать под свой регион. Carried ou By d year s ude he Summary I roduc io 1. Mea i g of marke Eco omy a d asks of he ra si io s. 2. he Emerge ce of Marke Eco omy i Europea cou ries. 1. . he ra si io o a Marke Eco omy. 2. Pola d a d Hu gary as he bes example of ra si io i he Eas Europe.2. MoldovaТs way o a ope eco omy. Co clusio . I roduc io his paper is orie ed oward he problems of ra si io a d crea i g i cou ries of Eas er Europe, amely Pola d, Hu gary, all of which are a emp i g o make he ra si io u der a democra ic, parliame ary form of gover me . he las ew years have wi essed ruly ex raordi ary eve s i he formally commu is socie ies. U der ewly es ablished co di io s of free speech a d freedom of orga iza io , commu is pri ciples of poli ical a d eco omic co rol have bee widely repudia ed, a d commu is gover me s have bee swep aside, replaced by gover me s commi ed o democra ic pri ciples a d a marke eco omy. While i some cou ries a d par s of cou ries former commu is have o bee decisively dislodged, i almos all cases commu ism has los wha ever remai i g legi imacy i possessed, a d i mos of hese socie ies he crucial eco omic issue has sudde ly cha ged from reformi g he socialis pla i g sys em by he i roduc io of marke -like eleme s o movi g o a marke -eco omy wi h priva e ow ership of mos of socie y's asse s. here are several reaso s why he ask of desig i g his ra si io is fasci a i g, especially o eco omis s. Firs , he problem i ew: o cou ry prior o 1989 had ever aba do ed he commu is poli ical a d eco omic sys em. Seco d, he experie ce o da e i dica es ha cou ries a emp i g ra si io face a umber of commo problems a d difficul ies. While here are impor a differe ces i he i heri ed si ua io s a d he choices made by gover me s of hese cou ries, he similari ies i he problems hey face a d he difficul ies hey are e cou eri g sugges ha here is logic o he ra si io process. hird, he abse ce of a y close his orical parallels a d he limi ed experie ce eco omics i ra si io offer a oppor u i y a d a challe ge for developme of orma ive ra si io sce arios. his ur ou , however o be ex raordi arily difficul o co s ruc . Fi ally, he problems are o wai i g for a alis s' solu io s; decisio s curre ly bei g made may lead o a evolu io wi h irreversible co seque ces. 1. Mea i g of Marke Eco omy a d he asks of he ra si io s. ha eco omic sys em which bri gs oge her a ural resources, labour supply a d ech ology a d which is pri cipally priva ely ow ed a d were gover me has o some ex e always bee i volved i regula i g a d guidi g he eco omy, has bee referred o as "Marke Eco omy". Ye , despi e his his ory of gover me i erve io , i dividuals i ha cou ry have always bee able o choose for whom hey will work a d wha hey will buy. ow 3 groups make decisio s a d i is heir dy amic i erac io ha makes he eco omy opera e.

Co sumers, producers a d gover me make eco omic decisio s o a daily basis, he primary force bei g be wee producers a d co sumers; he ce, he marke eco omy desig a io . Co sumers look for he bes values for wha hey spe d while producers seek he bes price a d profi from wha hey have o sell. Gover me , a s a e a d local levels, seeks o promo e he public safe y, provides social safe y- e , e sures fair compe i io a d also provides a ra ge of services believed o be be er performed by public ra her i clude educa io , heal h service, he pos al service road a d railway sys em, social s a is ical repor i g a d, of course, a io al defe se. I his marke eco omy sys em, eco omic forces are u fe ered, supply a d dema ds build up he price of goods a d services. E repre eurs are free o develop heir busi ess u less hey ca provide goods or services of a quali y a d price o comple e wi h o hers; hey are drive from he marke . By a d large, here are hree ki ds of busi ess: 1) hose s ar ed a d ma aged perso ally by si gle e repre eurs; 2) he par ership where wo or more people share he risks a d rewards of a busi ess; 3) he corpora io , here s ock holders as ow ers ca by or sell heir shares a a y ime o he ope marke ; his la er s ruc ure permi s he amassi g of large sums of mo ey by combi i g i ves me , maki g possible large-scale e erprise. I ova io s i eco omic heory i he las wo decades u doub edly affec he way eco omis s look a he ra si io problem a d have probably made hem more pessimis ic abou he ease wi h which i ca be accomplished. Developme s i ra sac io cos eco omics, he eco omics of i forma io , he ew i s i u io al eco omics, a d evolu io ary approaches o eco omics have se si ized eco omis s o he vi al role ha i s i u io s play i eco omic process. O e way of hi ki g abou a successful marke eco omy is ha i is a se of co verge expec a io s i he popula io abou how o her people will behave; hese expec a io s suppor a ex remely elabora e divisio of labour or a high degree of specializa io amo g i dividuals, orga iza io s, a d geographic areas. I rece decades ma y eco omis s have re ur ed o he Schumpe eria view ha he adva age of he marke eco omy (rela ive o i s al er a ives) lies more i i s facili a io of i ova ive ac ivi y ha i i s alloca ive efficie cy. he sys em of ce ral pla i g is surely deficie i bo h respec s bu i is shor comi gs seem o be much grea er i he area of i ova io ha i alloca ive efficie cy. A o her developme i eco omics ha has reduced he affrac ive ess of he large co cep io of marke socialism is he i creased a e io paid o he mo iva io of gover me officials, bo h legisla ors a d bureaucra s. I he 1950's a d 1960's, much of eco omic a alysis was focused o marke failures a d gover me ac io o remedy hese failures, u der he implici assump io ha gover me officials would follow he rules laid dow by he au hori ies. he a alysis of he logic of collec ive ac io a d he forma io of i eres groups he heory of re -seeki g behavior, a d he s udy of he evolu io of coopera io a d orms have emphasized ha gover me failure as well as marke failure mus be ake i o co sidera io i desig i g i s i u io s.

A vivid a alogy s a ed by Vladimir Be achek of Charles U iversi y is ha he socialis eco omics are a he op of a small hill ( he pla ed eco omy), a d hey wa o ge o he op of a larger hill ( he marke eco omy). Bu i be wee he wo hills is a valley, which may be bo h wide a d deep. he a alogy illus ra es he poi ha he ce rally pla ed eco omics did have a cohere eco omic sys em (i.e. hey were a he op of heir hill). O e migh add ha he smaller hill was bei g eroded by he s re g he i g of special i eres groups a d was perhaps, se li g due o he seismic rumbli gs ha sha ered he commu is au hori y. he ba d of ravelers mus se le heir differe ces, agree o a rou e, a d avoid he pi falls a d chasms alo g he way. Perhaps eco omic a alysis ca facili a e he jour ey by desig i g a bridge be wee he wo hills. Give he abse ce of close his orical parallels a d he severe limi a io s of eco omic models of socie y i is clearly beyo d he capaci y of social e gi eers o draw up very precise pla s for he bridge. he asks of he ra si io s he lis of ac ivi ies which gover me s which gover me s mus u der ake i cou ries a emp i g he ra si io o a marke eco omy is ruly s aggeri g. he lis give here is desig ed o co vey some hi g of he e ormi y a d complexi y of he job. Firs , here is a group of ac ivi ies rela ed o crea i g a ew se of rules: 1. Se i g up he legal i fras ruc ure for he priva e sec or: Commercial a d co rac low, a i rus a d labour low, e viro me al a d heal h regula io s; rules regardi g foreig par erships a d wholly foreig -ow ed compa ies; cour s o se le dispu es a d e force he laws.2. Devisi g a sys em of axa io of he ew priva e sec or: Defi i g accou i g rules for axa io purposes, orga izi g a I er al Reve ue Service o collec axes from he priva e sec or.3. Devisi g he rules for he ew fi a cial sec or: Defi i g accou i g rules for repor i g busi ess resul s o ba ks a d i ves ors; se i g up a sys em of ba k regula io .4. De ermi i g ow ership righ s o exis i g real proper y: Devisi g laws rela i g o he ra sfer of proper y, a d laws affec i g la dlord e a rela io s; resolvi g he vexa ious issue of res i u io of proper y co fisca ed by commu is gover me s.5. Foreig excha ge: a) se i g he rules u der which priva e firms a d i dividuals may esquire a d sell foreig excha ge a d foreig goods; b) se i g he rules i he same area for he o -ye -priva ized e erprises. ex here are some asks rela ed o ma agi g he:6. Reformi g prices: E erprises ha have bee priva ized will presumably be largely free o se heir ow prices, bu early o i he process, he dema ds of he gover me budge will require raisi g prices o ma y co sumer goods ha have bee provided a prices for below cos . 7. Crea i g a safe y e : Se i g up a emerge cy u employme compe sa io scheme; arge i g aid i ki d or i cash o hose hrea e ed wi h severe hard ship by he reforms.8. S abilizi g he macroeco omic: Ma agi g he gover me budge o avoid a excessive fiscal defici a d ma agi g he o al credi provided by he ba ki g sys em. Fi ally here are asks rela ed o priva iza io :9. Small-scale priva iza io : Releasi g o he priva e sec or rucks a d buses, re ail shops, res aura s, repair shops, warehouses, a d o her buildi g space for eco omic ac ivi ies; es ablishi g he priva e righ o purchase services from railroads, por s, a d o her e erprises which may remai i he public sec or.1

He believed that once those goals had been attained, the attraction of communism would become so overwhelming that nothing could stop the whole of Europe and Asia from turning communist. He saw that it was primarily American economic superiority, operating through the Marshall Plan and the Mutual Security agencies, that had defeated communism in Western Europe without much direct political intervention by the United States. On the other hand, Russia, because of her economic inferiority, maintained her preponderance in Eastern Europe primarily by the direct use of political and even military force. She had had to send out her political police to fight вАШdollar diplomacyвАЩ. In what we may suppose to have been Stalin's vision of the years 1965-70 the picture was reversed. He saw a self-sufficient bloc of 800 million people, toiling within the framework of an integrated planned economy, which should in time be able to produce such wealth and attain such high standards of living that communism could rely on its economic preponderance rather than on political or military coercion; while a stagnant or decaying bourgeois West would be losing its power of attraction and would come to rely more and more on the use of force

1. ќсобенности ведени€ бизнеса в  итае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

2. Europe in the Middle Ages

3. Terrorism in Europe

4. Foreign exchange market (»ностранный обменный рынок)

5. —пецподразделени€ јрмии »зраил€: "√олани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

6. Climate and Weather in Great Britain ( лимат и погода в ¬еликобритании)
7. Economic crisis in Russia (–оссийский кризис 1998 года)
8. Mass Media in England
Mass Media in England

9. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (–евность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожени€ в " рейцеровой сонате" Ћьва “олстого)

10. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

11. Radio And TV In My Life

12. AIDS IN AFRICA (—ѕ»ƒ в јфрике)

13. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

14. Education in Moscow school

15. International Raw Materials Market

16. Korea in Focus

 арандаши цветные BIC "Evolution", 18 цветов.
÷ветные карандаши произведены без использовани€ дерева. ”даропрочный стержень - не расщепл€етс€ при механическом воздействии. Ѕезопасные -
388 руб
–аздел: 13-24 цвета
‘игурка (копилка) декоративна€ "«айчонок/Ќепоседы" 9x11x22,5 см.
‘игурка декоративна€, настольна€. »зготовлена из полимерных материалов. –азмер: 9x11x22,5 см.
460 руб
–аздел:  опилки
÷ентр игровой надувной Upright "ѕаровозик".
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2544 руб
–аздел: Ѕатуты, надувные центры

17. Russia and the international economy

18. The cinema in Russia today

19. The US Economy after September 11th. Decline or Rapid Growth? (Ёкономика —Ўј после 11-ого сент€бр€. —нижение или Ѕыстрый –ост?)

20. Traditional Meals in Mexico

21. The Economy of Great Britain

22. Climate and Weather in Great Britain ( лимат и погода в ¬еликобритании)
23. Mozart: Symphony #40 in G Minor, K.550 ћоцарт: —имфони€ є40 в си-минор,  . 550
24. Sport: general, in Britain
Sport: general, in Britain

25. "Career in hotel industry"

26. Education in Great Britain

27. Leadership in Hospitality Industry

28. Control in management

29. Types of tests used in English Language Teaching Bachelor Paper

30. Indirect speech acts in modern English discourse. -  освенные речевые акты в современном английском дискурсе

31. –усские заимствовани€ в английском €зыке (Russian borrowings in English language)

32. Poland and Hungary are in Transition

√ель "Meine Liebe" дл€ стирки черных и темных тканей, 800 миллилитров.
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–аздел: √ели, концентраты
 онтейнер " лиер", 15 литров.
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374 руб
–аздел: Ўтучно
24 восковых мелка дл€ малышей, в бочонке.
ќптимальным выбором карандашей дл€ самых маленьких станет набор из 24 восковых мелков, предназначенных специально дл€ малышей от 1 года.
484 руб
–аздел: ¬осковые

33. Education in Great Britain

34. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

35. —пецподразделени€ јрмии »зраил€: "√олани" (Special forces in Army of Israel Golani)

36. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Ѕританска€ живопись 17-18 вв.)

37. Navruz - A Celebration of Life. Public holidays in Uzbekistan

38. –усские заимствовани€ в английском €зыке (Russian borrowings in English language)
39. Continuity and change in Stravinskiy`s ballets. —травинский и его балеты
40. УThe Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries Ц Facts or a Political Arithmetick?Ф

41. Education in the Middle Ages

42. Militant IslamТs Expansion in the Southern Philippines

43. Christmas in Britain (–ождество в Ѕритании)

44. јпокатастасис и "Ѕлагое молчание" в эсхатологии св. ћаксима исповедника (Apokatastasis and ЂHonorable silenceї in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

45. Liaison between Board and CEO in Russian Oil Companies

46. Banking services in Russia: theory and fact

47. Marketing reflections on learning outcomes

48. "Career in hotel industry"

 онтейнер дл€ аптечки "ƒомашний доктор", 10 л.
 онтейнер выполнен из прозрачного пластика. ƒл€ удобства переноски сверху имеетс€ ручка. ¬нутрь вставл€етс€ цветной вкладыш с одним
324 руб
–аздел: 5-10 литров
 роватка дл€ кукол, дерев€нна€.
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401 руб
–аздел: —пальни, кроватки
–остомер говор€щий "‘ерма".
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482 руб
–аздел: –остомеры

49. Country Study, Slovenia: Winning the Transitional Economies Race

50. Excursion in old Riga

51. The Impact the Civil War 1861-1865 on Economic, Politic and Industry Development in the USA

52. American Autoindustry in 1920

53. –азговоры в царстве мертвых (Dialogoe in regione mortuum)

54. Opt-in маркетинг - новый инструмент продвижени€
55. Europe
Europe
56.  омпозиторы in English

57. The Problem of Holmelessness in Canada

58. In-store эволюци€

59. Social stratification in modern Russia

60. јнализ критери€ логистической системы Just in time

61. U.S. Economy

62. Protectionnism and Free Trade in Economical Doctrines

63. Education in England

64. Accounting and Finance in AS Diena

 онструктор "÷ветной", 65 деталей.
 онструктор - это игра развивающа€ кругозор, знаком€ща€ с различными формами и цветами, а также развивающа€ воображение ¬ашего ребЄнка.
584 руб
–аздел: ƒерев€нные конструкторы
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5 секунд на каждый вопрос. ѕопробуем? Ќазовите две вещи на букву –! ƒва круглых предмета! “ри способа поздороватьс€! “ри ближайших улицы!
1490 руб
–аздел: »гры со словами
”влекательна€ настольна€ игра "√еометрика", нова€ верси€.
√еометри€ станет одним из самых любимых предметов, если начать еЄ изучение с Ђ√еометрикиї. Ёто проста€ и увлекательна€ настольна€ игра.
392 руб
–аздел:  арточные игры

65. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

66. Public holydays in Great Britain

67. Sport in a pub

68. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

69. A new weapon shooting from behind a corner is invented in Israel

70. Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia
Sports in Great Britain, the USA and Russia
71. Science in the 20th century
Science in the 20th century
72. Books in My Life
Books in My Life

73. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

74. My career in the future

75. Advertising in our Life

76. In der Mensa

77. In der Bibliothek

78. Was wollte der Autor in seinem Marchen sagen?

79. The weather in Great Britain

80. Theatre in Great Britain

Ўвабра "Ѕабочка".
Ўвабра "Ѕабочка" предназначена дл€ уборки напольных покрытий.
490 руб
–аздел: Ўвабры и наборы
–юмпочка.
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315 руб
–аздел: Ѕокалы, рюмки
Ќожницы "Explorer", 21,5 см.
Ќожницы с массивными лезви€ми идеально подход€т дл€ работы с плотной бумагой. Ёргономична€ форма ручек и резинова€ вставка с
390 руб
–аздел: Ќожи, ножницы, резаки

81. Education in GB

82. Education in Russia

83. Holidays in Great Britain

84. Sport in our life

85. Education in GB

86. Zaporozhye: The city in which I live
Zaporozhye: The city in which I live
87. Zivilprozes in der BRD
Zivilprozes in der BRD
88. Eyck, Jan van: altarpiece in Ghent
Eyck, Jan van: altarpiece in Ghent

89. The development of computers in ukraine and the former USSR

90. KOREA People and History in Harmony

91. Biopolitics in Russia: History and Prospects for the Future

92. Demographic crisis in Russia

93. Many strange children were found in the world

94. Ecological problems in big cities, particular in Moscow. How can a contradiction between the technological progress and ecology be solved from my point of view?

95. Education in Russia

96. Europe

ћ€гкий пол универсальный, коричневый, 33x33 см (9 деталей).
ƒанный вид напольного покрыти€ прекрасно совмещаетс€ с ковриками-пазлами "ћорские животные", "Ћисть€" и
754 руб
–аздел: ѕрочие
—ветильник "Ћампочка на веревке", синий.
ќригинальный пластиковый светодиодный светильник на шнурке длиной 116 - 125 см. ƒостаточно дЄрнуть за лампочку, чтобы включить либо
343 руб
–аздел: Ќеобычные светильники
“рехколесный велосипед Funny Jaguar Lexus Racer Trike (цвет: серебро).
ƒетский трехколесный велосипед с кол€сочной крышей на колесах ѕ¬’ Ц насто€щее спасение дл€ мам с маленькими детьми. √лавное место дл€
3600 руб
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97. Linguistic Pecularities Of Contracts in English

98. Sport in the UK

99. Stock market


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