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Formation of group behaviour in the organisations

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able of co e sI roduc io Chap er 1. Wha is he group a d why people u i e i groups? Chap er 2. ypes of groups. Chap er 3. Forma io of group a d i s basic charac eris ics. Chap er 4. Po e ial of group a d i s produc ivi y. he co clusio he li era ure lis I roduc io People live a d work i groups. 5 billio 400 millio he perso s occupyi g our pla e , form more ha 200 s a es i which is 20 millio eco omic orga isa io s a d hu dred millio s various groups. I he big orga isa io i dividuali y of he perso is dissolved i a lump of people. O her busi ess i group (a brigade, depar me , office, e c.). Here everyo e wi h he abili ies, lacks, ac s clearly. Owi g o fea ures of group i i here are processes which make esse ial impac o behaviour of he perso i he orga isa io . he firs has paid o his a e io of El o of Mayo duri g he k ow experime s i Ho or e. he fur her researches i he give direc io have allowed o draw he impor a co clusio s. Firs , he group akes a key place i he orga isa io . O he o e ha d, i he a ural form of associa io of i dividuals; wi h a o her a s ruc ural eleme for orga isa io co s ruc io . Seco dly, he group has posi ive i flue ce o o ly o he separa e worker, helpi g i is be er o lear i self, o ge ew skills, o sa isfy various social requireme s; bu also o all orga isa io , promo i g i s u i y, s abili y, occurre ce of ew ideas, perfec io of me hods of decisio -maki g a d he co rol. Processes owi g o which all i occurs, El o of Mayo a d Kur Levi amed Group dy amics recog isi g a key role of group dy amics i he orga iza io al behaviour, differe scie is s differe ly rea he mai e a ce of his co cep . O e pu i i forma io of group a d ma ageme of i . O hers co sider ha i represe s a se he ech icia a d ech iques of ype of group herapy, role rai i g, e c. he hird a some discrepa cy i separa e de ails adhere o he co cep of El o a of Mayo a d Kur a Levi accordi g o which group dy amics is co sidered from he poi of view of he i er al a ure of group, heir charac eris ics a d i erac io i hem i dividuals. Such sigh a group dy amics allows o approach o i s s udyi g as i covers a wide ra ge of ques io s more deeply. he au hor of he give work pu s before i self aim o co sider mos impor a of hem. Chap er 1. Wha is he group a d why people u i e i groups? he a swer o he firs par of a ques io is obvious: he/she is some perso s, small mee i g of people. Whe her however i is really possible o ame a y small associa io of people group? he majori y of researchers asser ha for group i is ecessary, firs , ha i s members co-opera ed a d, seco dly, ha hey fel he par icipa io wi h each o her. hese are wo or more perso s who co-opera e wi h each o her, i flue ce agai s each o her a d perceive i self as we, i.e. as commu i y o which hey belo g. Such u ders a di g of group i ma y respec s explai s he seco d par of a ques io . We will co sider basic eleme s of s ruc ure of co cep of group: i erac io a d a accessory. I erac io assumes ac io of i dividuals o he basis of overall aims a d i eres s. If hey are o prese , here is o also a group. A followi g co di io of i erac io is he similar rela io of members of group o hese purposes a d i eres s.

I dividual Х will co-opera e wi h he i dividual a if a ha a d a a o her i s alla io s i value coi cide. Fur her. ha he perso had a desire o es ablish co ec io wi h o her people, i should have i he lo g erm possibili y o receive as a resul of i erac io cer ai moral or ma erial compe sa io . he deep se se is pu a d i he seco d eleme of s ruc ure of co cep of group. he feeli g of a accessory is ecessary for he perso o realise i s a ural aspira io o be wi h o her people, o compare i self o hem a d o receive heir es ima io i self, respec a d a recog i io . he accessory o group mea s also po e ial possibili y for he i dividual o have reliable pro ec io . Members of o e group will i ercede he frie d for he frie d a d a a mee i g wi h hooliga s i he s ree , a d a co versa io wi h he heads more likely, defe di g group i eres s. A las , he accessory o group, for example, o a y club or a rade u io provides o he perso cer ai posi io i a socie y, gives i he power a d possibili ies for achieveme of specific goals. hus, people u i e i groups o sa isfy he requireme s i Dialogue. Power s re g he i g Recep io of he cer ai public s a us achieveme of social, eco omic a d o her purposes. Chap er 2. ypes of groups here are differe cri eria o which classify groups. For example, depe di g o charac er of joi ac ivi y hey ca be i dus rial, educa io al, family, e c.; depe di g o dura io a d exis e ce co s a or ime e c. However he majori y of scie is s i a basis of ypology of groups ake he mos ge eral cri erio a pri ciple of heir crea io . O e groups are crea ed direc ive a will of a ma ageme of he orga isa io for performa ce of i s purposes, o hers volu ary workers for sa isfac io of he various requireme s. he firs ame formal, he seco d he i formal. Formal groups happe wo ypes: admi is ra ive a d opera ive. he groups provided by orga iza io al s ruc ure co cer he admi is ra ive: depar me s, si es e c. he opera ive i clude workers a d employees who oge her carry ou a y ask or he projec . he comma d co cer s such ype, for example. I formal groups also share o wo ki ds: Groups o i eres s a d groups o he basis of frie dship. As a example of he firs ype associa io s of people o he basis of aspira io o self-developme , i crease of he professio al skill or collec ors ca serve. A source of forma io of groups of he seco d ype are liki g o each o her a d similari y of perso al values a d i s alla io s. Formal a d i formal groups have much i commo . Firs , bo h hose, a d o hers pass similar s ages of developme . hey have hierarchies, leaders, roles, orms (rule), he s a us, he size. hirdly, group dy amics of hose a d o hers are peculiar charac eris ics are ide ical: u i y a d co flic s. A he same ime be wee hem exis s basic dis i c io s. As mos impor a of hem Joh V. jus rom a d Ka e Devis co sider he followi g. Dis i c io s of formal a d i formal groups. he basis for compariso I formal group Formal group: Ge eral mu ual rela io s I formal Official, Basic co cep s he Power a d a policy of he Righ a d a du y, Basic a e io o he Perso of he Pos , Source of he power Proceeds from group, Ma ageme o behaviour of orm of he Rule, Source of ma ageme of he Sa c io Compe sa io a d he pe al y Is delega ed by a ma ageme .

Appare ly from he able, i i formal groups he domi a role is played by members of groups a d heir mu ual rela io , i formal - official roles i erms of he official righ s a d du ies of i dividuals. he i formal power, hus, addresses o he perso as o he perso a d, he ce, has perso al charac er; he formal as o he official, i is es ablished officially. his he leader of i formal group receives he power from fellow workers, formal from a orga isa io ma ageme . he behaviour i i formal group is regula ed by group sa c io s, i he formal Rules a d du y regula io s. A las group sa c io s serve i i formal group as i flue ce me hods o ma ageme of behaviour, i formal Rewardi gs a d pe al ies. All hese dis i c io s promo e crea io i i formal groups of special i erperso al rela io s which make a imes s ro ger impac o behaviour of workers, ha he admi is ra ive power. herefore, hough i formal groups are crea ed o a will of he ma ageme , each ma ager should recko wi h hem. How i formal groups wi h formal co-opera e, efficie cy of he orga isa io depe ds fi ally. I formal groups have ma y he adva ages. hey facili a e admi is ra ive loadi g of ma ageme : if members of such group divide he orga isa io purposes carry ou he co rol. I formal groups promo e coopera io a d coopera io , recep io of sa isfac io from work, serve some ki d of he valve for a exi of emo io s of workers, improve commu ica io s i he orga isa io . Use of all hese possibili ies for i crease of efficie cy of he orga isa io ? A direc du y of ma ageme . Exis a umber of he rules checked up i prac ice which each ma ager should adhere i he work wi h i formal groups. heir esse ce is reduced o, ha : 1. o recog ise exis e ce of i formal group a d o realise ha i s suppressio will cause orga isa io easi g. 2. o lis e o opi io s of members a d leaders of i formal groups, ha he obili y heir mood. 3. Before accep i g a y ac io s, o cou heir possible co seque ces for i formal group. 4. For easi g of resis a ce o cha ges i he orga isa io from ou side i formal group o i volve i s members i accep a ce of admi is ra ive decisio s. 5. I due ime o give ou o workers he exac i forma io , i erferi g wi h ha o dis ribu io of heari gs. Chap er 3. Forma io of group a d i s basic charac eris icsI he li era ure here are some models of forma io of group, a d i each of hem s ages of i s life cycle are called differe ly. For example, James L.Gibso , Joh Iva sevich a d James H. Do eli - you ger co sider ha each group passes i he developme hrough s ages: a mu ual recog i io , dialogue a d decisio -maki g, mo iva io a d efficie cy, he co rol a d he orga isa io . Accordi g o L. V. Kar ashovoj, Т. V. iko ovoj a d Т. O. Soloma idi oj, such s ages five: a i i ial s age of forma io , a s age of he i ragroup co flic , mai e a ce of u i y of group, a s age of he highes worki g capaci y a d a fi al s age (for ime groups). Е. G. Moll, as well as he America scie is s, alloca es also 4 s ages: group forma io , a s age a s orm a d a s orm, a execu io s age. A lack of all hese defi i io s is heir some ra dom ess, abse ce of me hodological cri erio .

output date Displays or sets the system time dc Tiny RPN calculator dd Copies a file, converting and formatting according to options deallocvt Deallocates unused virtual terminal /dev/ttyN delgroup Deletes a group from the system deluser Deletes a user from the system devfsd Obsolete daemon for managing devfs permissions and old device name symlinks df Prints the file system space used and space available dirname Strips a nondirectory suffix from a filename dmesg Prints or controls the kernel ring buffer dos2unix Converts a file from DOS format to UNIX format dpkg Utility to install, remove, and manage Debian packages dpkg-deb Performs actions on Debian packages (debs) du Summarizes disk space used for each file and/or directory dumpkmap Prints a binary keyboard-translation table to standard output dumpleases Displays the DHCP leases granted by udhcpd echo Prints the specified ARGs to stdout env Prints the current environment or runs a program after setting expr Prints the value of an expression to standard output

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99. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?


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