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The teaching of Hugo Gratius

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yume S a e U iversi y Facul y of His ory I er a io al Rela io s Depar me erm paper “ he eachi g of Hugo Gra ius of war a d peace.” Do e by De is Brovka, S ude of group 984 Checked by Chris opher Goldsmi h yume 2000 Co e s.I roduc io 3 Chap er I 4 Chap er II 7 Chap er III 12 Co clusio 15 Bibliography 16I roduc io Hugo Gra ius, a scie is a d a lawyer from Holla d, lived from 1583 o 1645. I his famous rea ise “ he hree Books o he Righ of War a d Peace”, published i 1625, he depic ed he s ruggle of he Du ch capi al for freedom a he sea. He is co sidered o be he fou der of he bourgeois s udies of he i er a io al law a d is o e of he represe a ives of he big bourgeoisie as a scholar of law a a early s age of i s developme duri g he dissolu io of feudalism i Wes er Europe a d he firs large revol of bourgeoisie. his book by Gra ius is more or less a sys ema ical repor of he basic heories of i er a io al law, which were commo for ha period of evolu io from feudalism o capi alism. I was for a lo g ime o e of he mos impor a books for diploma s. Accordi g o his beliefs, Hugo was a represe a ive of he period of ra sforma io from feudalis o bourgeois s a e. His ideas received wide spread a d fou ded he baseme of fur her developme of he i er a io al law, because hey expressed real co di io s of developme a d poli ical dema ds of he ewly-formi g class of bourgeoisie o he ruli g feudal par y. I mus specially o e he progressive charac er of some of he Gra ius’s ideas i he sphere of he i er a io al law ha had a s ro g i flue ce o moder i er a io al rela io s. Hugo Gra ius, bei g a bourgeoisie heoris o i s early s ages, de ied he opi io ha force makes all he decisio s i he i er a io al rela io s. He hough ha law a d jus ice should be umber o e i i er a io al rela io s Bu we mus o forge ha he progressive ess of his ideas was i co sis e a d limi ed by he arrow frameworks of he bourgeois law views. I is ecessary o o e ha moder bourgeois ideologis s re ou ce he pri ciples promo ed by he a ces ors i 17 – 18 ce uries whe bourgeoisie was figh i g agai s feudalism. Chap er I Hugo Gra ius was o of he represe a ives of he leadi g (i 17 – 18 ce uries) school of commo law a d rea y heory of s a e origi s. he school expressed he basic dema ds of bourgeoisie i i s s ruggle wi h feudalism; i s heore ical baseme was ou look, ur ed ou as a resul of he revolu io i a ural his ory, reforma io , a d a bu dle of ideas, lef from huma ism i 15 –16 ce uries. I mus be o ed here ha al hough he school had a commo heore ical base i was o homoge eous. I had lo s of re ds, which differed from o e a o her by phases of bourgeoisie developme , s ages of her s ruggle wi h feudalism, qua i y of differe class’s represe a ives i a s a e, a d differe ces i bourgeoisie i self, because differe groups had differe opi io s o impleme i g heir dema ds. hese differe ces ca be see whe a sweri g he ques io s o prac ical impleme a io of he ideas of commo law, ex. Who is he bearer of sovereig y: people or mo arch, which form of gover me is he bes for huma a ure, e c. he problem of he s a e origi s – a heore ical ques io – had also differe a swers.

hey all agreed ha before s a e here was a so called “ a ural co di io ”. Bu wha was his “ a ural co di io ” was a poi of deba es. For o e of he heoris s i was a realm of u limi ed freedom, wild a archy, leadi g o war of “all agai s all” (Hobbes); for o hers – a peaceful idealis ic s a e of freedom a d i oce ce, “Golde Age” (Rousseau); o hers hough i was u limi ed perso al freedom (Loch). For ma y preachers of his heory “ a ural co di io ” was a philosophical dogma or, as Golbach said, fic io . Bu his fic io helped ideologis s of bourgeoisie o cri icize pre-capi alis ic social a d poli ical regime a d o prophecy he vic ory of bourgeoisie. “I his socie y - wro e Marx – a i dividual is free from a ural bo ds, e c., ha i he pas made him belo g o a cer ai limi ed huma commu i y.” heoris s of a ural law co sider s a e as a resul of a juridical ac – rea y of he socie y, of people’s free will. he idea of a ural law a d rea y s a e origi s ca be fou d i Greek a d Roma philosophy a d works, a d i he works of feudalism scholars i middle ages. Bu i 17 – 18 ce uries hese ideas became more developed wi h some peculiar fea ures, because hey lose heological co ex commo for medieval scholars, a d aпve a uralism of a cie o es, because some of hem co sidered a imals as subjec s of law. Bu he mai hi g is ha a heory of i er a io al law of he 17 – 18 ce uries had differe class’ esse ce. I expressed s ro g dema ds of bourgeoisie, s ruggli g hard for o i s way o power. he views o he co e s of he rea y were also differe . Hobbes calls a rea y via people a ac by which all popula io loses all a ural freedom a d righ s i mo arch’s favour a d permi him a u limi ed power upo hem. Loch hough ha a i dividual who e ers his socie y via rea y loses his righ s o ly par ly (righ for self-help, self-defe se whe some hi g is hrea e i g his a ural righ s), i favour of he o her par : priva e proper y a d freedom. Golbach defi ed he rea y of he socie y as a bu dle of co di io s ecessary for orga izi g a d savi g socie y. De y Didreau hough of he rea y of he socie y a bi differe ly. “People, – he wro e, – quickly u ders ood ha if hey co i ued usi g heir freedom, heir power, heir i depe de ce he he si ua io of every si gle perso would be eve more miserable, ha ha if he lived separa ely; hey realized ha every perso has o sacrifice a par of his a ural i depe de ce a d o submi o will, ha would be he will of he whole socie y a d would be, so o say, commo ce er a d a poi of u ifica io of all heir wills a d powers. ha is he origi of rulers.” here is o eed o say abou heore ical u sou d ess of his co cep of he school of a ural law. Eve i he 18 ce ury some bourgeois philosophers fou d he a ihis orical esse ce of hese views. For example, Jum says ha a ural co di io is a fic io of he philosophers. S a e emerges o as a resul of a rea y bu his orically. Some also said ha people could o i ve a erm “s a e”, o k owi g he prac ice. he firs Russia law professor Seme Jefimovi ch Des i skiy abrup ly cri icized “ a ural law” a d mos ly Pouffe dorf. “ he works of Pouffe dorf – he said – was u ecessary, because wri i g of s a es of huma ki d ha had ever exis ed, is a very u wor hy deed.”

Chap er II I is impor a o show which a ural co di io s were he soil for such a illusio of a ural s a e a d rea y s a e origi s, a d o show he role a d impor a ce of his idea i he class s ruggle of ha ime. Marx said ha he i dividual who e ers he socie y u io via rea y, as see by heoris s of he school of a ural law, is a resul of desce ded feudal socie y forms a d developed i he 16-ce ury ew produc ive powers. A grea mis ake of a ural law heoris s was ha i heir opi io i dividual has o developed his orically, bu se up by a ure i self. Fea ures commo for bourgeoisie were proclaimed as commo for ma ki d. Bu rea y of he socie y was regarded by ma y adep s of a ural law o as a his orical fac bu as a logic grou d, hypo hesis for explai i g he differe ce be wee s a e a d a ural co di io , i.e. be wee s a e a d a archy for explai i g o e or he o her form of s a e, ex. mo archy (Gra ius), democra ic republic (Rousseau). I mus be added ha i hose his orical co di io s he heory of he rea y of he socie y had progressive mea i g for s ruggle wi h feudal heories, ex. heocra ic co cep of s a e origi s a d pa rimo ial heory, which viewed he s a e as proper y of he mo arch. A s a eme abou he dualism of law is commo for he rea y heory. I differe ia es he a ural a d posi ive law, i.e. give by he legisla io of a s a e. a ural law is prior o socie y a d s a e; posi ive law – o crea i g a s a e. his dualism i o io s of law is also depraved fea ure i he heory of a ural law, because he me aphysical way of hi ki g, commo for bourgeois ideologis s, was o able o explai he u s eadi ess a d varie y i he law. For he ideologis s of bourgeoisie i is commo o co sider law a d s a e as a expressio of he people’s will. I is of course wro g, from or poi of view. Bu i hose his orical co di io s of s ruggle agai s feudalism a d absolu e mo archy, his illusio had cer ai ly a progressive se se, because wi h he help of his idea bourgeoisie was achievi g aboli io of he sys em of privileges a d se i g up a represe a ive sys em i s a e sys em. Hugo Gra ius is o e of he earlies bourgeoisie ideologis s a d a represe a ive of school of a ural law. His views were formed a he ime whe he process of forma io of bourgeois s a e i e herla ds had o fi ished ye , a d he Bri ish o e was o ly s ar i g. I mus be o ed ha he s ruggle of he Du ch agai s Spa ish ki g Phillip II made a grea i flue ce o Gra ius. he problems of i er a io al law, exami ed by him were se up by he bloody 30-years war, compe i io be wee Holla d, E gla d a d Spai a d heir figh i g for he leadership a he sea. I mus be o ed ha i he sys em of Gra ius’s views here is o such poli ical sharp ess as is commo for Rousseau or eve for Loch. He expresses he i eres s of such groups of bourgeoisie, which were able o make a deal wi h feudalism. He is a mo archis accordi g o his beliefs a d opposes he idea of people’s sovereig y. He also does ’ wa o hrow away religious world ou look. Hugo Gra ius differe ia es law as a ural a d volu arium. a ural law accordi g o him is a deed, which is co sidered morally disgraceful or morally ecessary, accordi g o whe her i co radic s he a ure or o ; ha ’s why his deed is forbidde or allowed by he God himself, he crea or of he a ure.”

Ein internationales Symposion der "Presse" zum 50. Jahrestag der Ermordung Franz Ferdinands. 27-28. VI. 1964. (3) На страницах двадцатичетырехстраничного выпуска издательства Мольдена, в значительной части посвященного апологии гогенцоллернской и габсбургской империй, одновременно выступили шестнадцать историков из США, ФРГ и Австрии. (4) Univ. Prof. Theodor Schieder (Koeln). Die Weltkriege und der Griff nach der Weltmacht. Ebenda. s.II (5) Univ-Prof. Adam Wandruszka (Koeln). Die "Kriegsschuld" der Fuerungschichten". Ebenda. S. XI. (6) "Ein Lot Freude, zwei Lot Kummer und 100 Pfund Hollenangst. Univ. Prof. Hugo Hantsch. Oraf Berchtold - Legende und Wirklichkeit. Ebenda. S. XI. (7) Hans Weigsel. Triumph der Nebensachen. Ebenda. S. .XIII-XIV. (8) Jоh. Christoph Allmayer-Beсk. Die Grosse Schweigerin: die Armee. Ebenda. S. XI. (9) Univ. Doz. Fritz Fellner. Zwischen 10 Juni und 28 Juli 1914. Die Wochen Zwischen Aftentat und Kriegsausbruch. Elenda. S. L. (10) В. И. Ленин. Полн. собр. соч., том XXVI, стр.16 (11) Paul Sethe. "Ich habe es nicht gewollt" (Der Kaiser hatte Angst vor dem Krieg). "Der Stern" (Hamburg), N 31,2.111. 1964. (12) Die deutschen Dokumente zum Kriegssausbruch. Berlin-Wien, 1924. (13) Германский посол в Вене (14) Германский посол в Петербурге (15) Германский посол в Лондоне (16) Английский министр иностранных дел (17) В. Шульгин. Дни

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3. The Church of England

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11. The History of English

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13. The Tower of London

14. The history of Old English and its development

15. The Queen of the UK

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18. The role of art in our life

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20. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

21. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

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26. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

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33. The faculty of mathematics of Irkutsk State University

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99. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

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