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The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

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HOWARD H. AIKE A D HE COMPU ER Howard Aike 's co ribu io s o he developme of he compu er - o ably he Harvard Mark I (IBM ASSC) machi e, a d i s successor he Mark II - are of e excluded from he mai s ream his ory of compu ers o wo ech icali ies. he firs is ha Mark I a d Mark II were elec ro-mecha ical ra her ha elec ro ic; he seco d o e is ha Aike was ever co vi ced ha compu er programs should be rea ed as da a i wha has come o be k ow as he vo euma co cep , or he s ored program.I is o proposed o discuss here he origi s a d sig ifica ce of he s ored program. or I wish o deal wi h he rela ed problem of whe her he machi es before he s ored program were or were o “compu ers”. his subjec is complica ed by he co fusio i ac ual ames give o machi es. For example, he E IAC, which did o i corpora e a s ored program, was officially amed a compu er: Elec ro ic umeral I egra or A d Compu er. Bu he firs s ored-program machi e o be pu i o regular opera io was Maurice Wiles' EDSAC: Elec ro ic Delay S orage Au oma ic Calcula or. I seems o be ra her se seless o de y ma y ruly sig ifica i ova io s (by H.H.Aike a d by Ecker a d Mauchly), which played a impor a role i he his ory of compu ers, o he arbi rary grou d ha hey did o i corpora e he s ored-program co cep . Addi io ally, i he case of Aike , i is sig ifica ha here is a curre compu er ech ology ha does o i corpora e he s ored programs a d ha is desig a ed as (a leas by EXAS I S RUME S) as “Harvard archi ec ure”, hough, i should more properly be called “Aike archi ec ure”. I his ech ology he program is fix a d o subjec o a y al era io save by i e - as i some compu ers used for elepho e swi chi g a d i ROM. OPERA IO OF HE E IAC.Aike was a visio ary, a ma ahead of his imes. Grace Hopper a d o hers remember his predic io i he la e 1940s, eve before he vacuum ube had bee wholly replaced by he ra sis or, ha he ime would come whe a machi e eve more powerful ha he gia machi es of hose days could be fi ed i o a space as small as a shoe box.Some weeks before his dea h Aike had made a o her predic io . He poi ed ou ha hardware co sidera io s alo e did o give a rue pic ure of compu er cos s. As hardware has become cheaper, sof ware has bee ap o ge more expe sive. A d he he gave us his fi al predic io : “ he ime will come”, he said, “whe ma ufac urers will gave away hardware i order o sell sof ware”. ime alo e will ell whe her or o his was his fi al look ahead i o he fu ure. DEVELOPME OF COMPU ERS I HE USA I he early 1960s, whe compu ers were hulki g mai frames ha ook up e ire rooms, e gi eers were already oyi g wi h he he - ex ravaga o io of buildi g a compu er i e ded for he sole use of o e perso . by he early 1970s, researches a Xerox's Polo Al o Research Ce er (Xerox PARC) had realized ha he pace of improveme i he ech ology of semico duc ors - he chips of silico ha are he buildi g blocks of prese -day elec ro ics - mea ha soo er or la er he PC would be ex ravaga o lo ger. hey foresaw ha compu i g power would someday be so cheap ha e gi eers would be able o afford o devo e a grea deal of i simply o maki g o - ech ical people more comfor able wi h hese ew i forma io - ha dli g ools.

i heir labs, hey developed or refi ed much of wha co s i u es PCs oday, from “mouse” poi i g devices o sof ware “wi dows”.Al hough he work a Xerox PARC was crucial, i was o he spark ha ook PCs ou of he ha ds of exper s a d i o he popular imagi a io . ha happe ed i auspiciously i Ja uary 1975, whe he magazi e Popular Elec ro ics pu a ew ki for hobbyis s, called he Al air, o i s cover. for he firs ime, a ybody wi h $400 a d a solderi g iro could buy a d assemble his ow compu er. he Al air i spired S eve Wos iak a d S eve Jobs o build he firs Apple compu er, a d a you g college dropou amed Bill Ga es o wri e sof ware for i . Mea while. he perso who deserves he credi for i ve i g he Al air, a e gi eer amed Ed Rober s, lef he i dus ry he had spaw ed o go o medical school. ow he is a doc or i small ow i ce ral Georgia. o his day, researchers a Xerox a d elsewhere pooh-pooh he Al air as oo primi ive o have made use of he ech ology hey fel was eeded o bri g PCs o he masses. I a se se, hey are righ . he Al air i corpora ed o e of he firs si gle-chip microprocessor - a semico duc or chip, ha co ai ed all he basic circui s eeded o do calcula io s - called he I el 8080. Al hough he 8080 was adva ced for i s ime, i was far oo slow o suppor he mouse, wi dows, a d elabora e sof ware Xerox had developed. I deed, i was ' u il 1984, whe Apple Compu er's Maci osh burs o o he sce e, ha PCs were powerful e ough o fulfill he origi al visio of researchers. “ he ki d of compu i g ha people are ryi g o do oday is jus wha we made a PARC i he early 1970s,” says Ala Kay, a former Xerox researcher who jumped o Apple i he early 1980s. MACI OSH PERFORMA 6200/6300Researchers oday are proceedi g i he same spiri ha mo iva ed Kay a d his Xerox PARC colleagues i he 1970s: o make i forma io more accessible o ordi ary people. Bu a look i o oday's research labs reveals very li le ha resembles wha we hi k of ow as a PC. For o e hi g, researchers seem eager o aba do he keyboard a d mo i or ha are he PC's rademarks. I s ead hey are ryi g o devise PCs wi h i erpre ive powers ha are more huma like - PCs ha ca hear you a d see you, ca ell whe you're i a bad mood a d k ow o ask ques io s whe hey do ' u ders a d some hi g.I is impossible o predic he i ve io ha , like he Al air, crys allize ew approaches i a way ha cap ures people's imagi a io . op 20 compu er sys ems From solderi g iro s o SparcS a io s, from MI S o Maci osh, perso al compu ers have evolved from do-i -yourself ki s for elec ro ic hobbyis s i o machi es ha prac ically leap ou of he box a d se hemselves up. Wha e abled hem o ge from here o here? I ova io a d de ermi a io . Here are op 20 sys ems ha made ha rapid evolu io possible.MI S Al air 8800 here o ce was a ime whe you could buy a op-of- he-li e compu er for $395. he o ly ca ch was ha you had o build i yourself. Al hough he Al air 8800 was ' ac ually he firs perso al compu er (Scelbi Compu er Co sul i g`s 8008-based Scelbi-8H ki probably ook ha ho or i 1973), i grabbed a e io . MI S sold 2000 of hem i 1975 - more ha a y si gle compu er before i .

Based o I el`s 8-bi 8080 processor, he Al air 8800 ki i cluded 256 by es of memory (upgradable, of course) a d a oggle-swi ch-a d-LED fro pa el. For ame i ies such as keyboard, video ermi als, a d s orage devices, you had o go o o e of he compa ies ha spra g up o suppor he Al air wi h expa sio cards. I 1975, MI S offered 4- a d 8-KB Al air versio s of BASIC, he firs produc developed by Bill Ga es` a d Paul Alle `s ew compa y, Microsof .If he perso al compu er hobbyis s moveme was simmeri g, 1975 saw i come o a boil wi h he i roduc io of he Al air 8800.Apple II hose of you who hi k of he IBM PC as he qui esse ial busi ess compu ers may be i for a surprise: he Apple II ( oge her wi h VisiCalc) was wha really made people o look a perso al compu ers as busi ess ools, o jus oys. he Apple II debu ed a he firs Wes Coas Compu er Fair i Sa Fra cisco i 1977. Wi h buil -i keyboard, graphics display, eigh readily accessible expa sio slo s, a d BASIC buil -i o ROM, he Apple II was ac ually easy o use. Some of i s i ova io s, like buil -i high-resolu io color graphics a d a high-level la guage wi h graphics comma ds, are s ill ex raordi ary fea ures i desk op machi es.Wi h a 6502 CPU, 16 KB of RAM, a 16-KB ROM, a casse e i erface ha ever really worked well (mos Apple I e ded up wi h he floppy drive he was a ou ced i 1978), a d color graphics, he Apple II sold for $1298.Commo dore PE Also i roduced a he firs Wes Coas Compu er Fair, Commo dore`s PE (Perso al Elec ro ic ra sac or) s ar ed a lo g li e of expe sive perso al compu ers ha brough compu ers o he masses. ( he VIC-20 ha followed was he firs compu er o sell 1 millio u i s, a d he Commo dore 64 af er ha was he firs o offer a whoppi g 64 KB of memory.) he keyboard a d small mo ochrome display bo h fi i he same o e-piece u i . Like he Apple II, he PE ra o MOS ech ology's 6502. I s $795 price, key o he Pe 's populari y supplied o ly 4 KB of RAM bu i cluded a buil -i casse e ape drive for da a s orage a d 8-KB versio of Microsof BASIC i i s 14-KB ROM.Radio Shack RS-80Remember he rash 80? Sold a local Radio Shack s ores i your choice of color (Mercedes Silver), he RS-80 was he firs ready- o-go compu er o use Zilog`s Z80 processor. he base u i was esse ially a hick keyboard wi h 4 KB of RAM a d 4 KB of ROM (which i cluded BASIC). A op io al expa sio box ha co ec ed by ribbo cable allowed for memory expa sio . A Pi k Pearl eraser was s a dard equipme o keep hose ribbo cable co ec io s clea .Much of he firs sof ware for his sys em was dis ribu ed o audiocasse es played i from Radio Shack casse e recorders.Osbor e 1 Por ableBy he e d of he 1970s, garage s ar -ups were pass. For u a ely here were o her e repre eurial possibili ies. ake Adam Osbor e, for example. He sold Osbor e Books o McGraw-Hill a d s ar ed Osbor e Compu er. I s firs produc , he 24-pou d Osbor e 1 Por able, boas ed a low price of $1795.More impor a , Osbor e es ablished he prac ice of bu dli g sof ware - i spades. he Osbor e 1 came wi h early $1500 wor h of programs: WordS ar, SuperCalc, BASIC, a d a slew of CP/M u ili ies.B

Dating the rise of atmospheric oxygen // Nature. 2004. V. 427, 6970. P. 117120. 182. Benton M. At the court of the Red Queen // New scientist. 1985. V. 108, 1484. P. 5254. 183. Benton M. J. First marsupial fossil from Asia // Nature. 1985. V. 318, 6044. P. 313. 184. Benton M. J. Diversification and Extinction in the History of Life // Science. 1995. V. 268, 5207. P. 5258. 185. Benton M. J., Tverdokhlebov V. P., Surkov M. V. Ecosystem remodelling among vertebrates at the Permian Triassic boundary in Russia // Nature. 2004. V. 432, 7013. P. 97100. 186. Bergh S. van den. The Age and Size of the Universe // Science. 1992. V. 258, 5081. P. 421424. 187. Berman D. S., Reisz R. R., Scott D., Henrici A. C., Sumida S. S., Martens T. Early Permian Bipedal Reptile // Science. 2000. V. 290, 5493. P. 969972. 188. BermЄdez de Castro J. M., Arsuaga J. L., Carbonell E., Rosas A., Martinez I., Mosquera M. A Hominid from the Lower Pleistocene of Atapuerca, Spain: Possible Ancestor to Neandertals and Modern Humans // Science. 1997. V. 276, 5317. P. 13921395. 189. Bernstein M. P., Dworkin J. P., Sandford S. A., Cooper G. W., Allamandola L. J

1. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

2. The History of English

3. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

4. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

5. The history of Australia

6. History of the USA
History of the USA
7. The history of Christmas
The history of Christmas
8. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia
The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

9. The history of Ancient Egypt

10. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

11. The history of English

12. The history of grammar theory

13. The history of Moscow

14. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

15. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

16. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

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17. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

18. A role of the Environmental Ethics in the modern society

19. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

20. The development of computers in the USA

21. Some problems of borrowing in the Russian language

22. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks
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23. Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
Basic perspectives and schools of developing sociology in the XX century
24. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school
Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

25. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

26. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

27. The creation and activities of local organizations of the Bund Belarus

28. Advertising in the world of art

29. History of runic alphabets

30. Water World as Another Home for English Nation Reflected in the English Folklore

31. Education in the Middle Ages

32. Реферат перевода с английского языка из книги “A History of England” by Keith Feiling

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33. Militant Islam’s Expansion in the Southern Philippines

34. Whether ‘tis nobler in the mind... Пастернак и нравственная дилемма послереволюционной интеллигенции

35. Education in the USA

36. Trade in Estonia in the Past and Present

37. Science in the 20th century

38. My career in the future
My career in the future
39. Many strange children were found in the world
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40. Sport in the UK
Sport in the UK

41. History of runes

42. Holidays in Russia, Britain and the USA

43. The Tower in the 19th Century: From fortress to ancient monument

44. History of Belarus

45. Sport and recreation in the United States

46. History of American Literature

47. History of Homeschooling in USA

48. A Catcher In The Rye - Summary

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50. Roman Catholic labor movement in Grodno province (last third of XIX - beginning of XX century.)

51. The Tower of London

52. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

53. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

54. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States
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55. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)
56. Jealousy as the cause of internal self-destruction in "Kreutzer Sonata" by Leo Tolstoy (Ревность как причина внутреннего самоуничтожения в "Крейцеровой сонате" Льва Толстого)

57. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

58. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

59. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

60. The Castles of England

61. The fastest computers of the world

62. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

63. The Tower of London

64. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

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448 руб
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65. The Economy of Great Britain

66. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

67. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

68. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

69. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

70. The Queen of the UK
The Queen of the UK
71. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War
72. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia
The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

73. Ways of exploring the world

74. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

75. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

76. Evaluating the GPRS Radio Interface for Different Quality of Service Profiles

77. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

78. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

79. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

80. The profile of an effective manager

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Раздел: Персонажи мультфильмов, сказок

81. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

82. The practice of modern medicine

83. THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR

84. The dark side of the moon

85. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

86. The National Emblem of the Republic of Kazakhstan
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87. The United States of America
The United States of America
88. Review of Bill Gates’s book ”Business @ the Speed of Thought”

89. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

90. The United States Of America

91. The uniqueness of the British

92. The protection of the environment

93. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

94. The United States of America

95. The lesson of English

96. Cities of the USA

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97. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Nothern Ireland. The land and the people.

98. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?

99. Washington is the capital of the USA


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