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A Comparison between Beowulf & Redcrosse Knight
Bo h Beowulf a d Redcrosse K igh exemplify he perfec hero i wo separa e periods, he Middle Age & he Early Moder Period. he s ory of Beowulf shows he effec of he spread of Chris ia i y i he early Da ish paga is ic socie y ha values heroic deeds a d bravery above all else. Beowulf’s heroism is explored i hree separa e co flic s, hose wi h Gre del, Gre del’s mo her, a d he sea mo s er. Redcrosse K igh , he pro ago is of “ he Faerie Quee ,” s a ds for he vir ue of Holi ess— hough he is he i dividual Chris ia figh i g agai s evil. Wha is a hero? Accordi g o he America Heri age® Dic io ary of he E glish La guage, a hero is a perso o ed for fea s of courage or obili y of purpose, especially o e who has risked or sacrificed his or her life. “ he Faerie Quee ,” wri e duri g he early moder period, arra es a massive cha ge i Chris ia religious hough s a d prac ices. Redcrosse K igh offers his services o Gloria a, Quee of Fairyla d. U a (represe i g ru h) reveals ha he drago of hell has cap ured her pare s a d ha she eeds assis a ce i ge i g hem free. Redcrosse akes o he challe ge of ge i g her pare s released (Ca o 1). his demo s ra e a hero, he will go hrough grea rials a d figh fierce mo s ers a d his i i self is he charac er of a heroic k igh . o o ly does his armor pro ec his body a d hose wi h him, bu also bei g a Chris ia (Pro es a ism) he has he pro ec io of Chris . For he Chris ia o be holy, he mus have rue fai h. Much of Beowulf is dedica ed o verbalizi g a d demo s ra i g he heroic code, which values s re g h, courage, a d loyal y i soldiers, hospi ali y, ge erosi y, poli ical skill, a d good repu a io i all people. he heroic code is crucial o warrior socie ies as a way of u ders a di g heir rela io ships o he world a d he da ger wai i g ou side heir borders. Redcrosse K igh , co versely, accus om o he chivalric code, mus defea villai s who imperso a e he falsehood of he Roma Church. Redcrosse mus defe d he a ural realm of villai s plus he spiri ual realm of evil ess. he rich quali ies of loyal y, humili y, sacrifice for he good of o hers, a d sympa hy for hose less for u a e are see wove i o he ex as well as he ega ive co seque ces from greed a d pride. He e cou ers several evildoers, he drago from hell, Archimago (evil sorcerer), Sa sfoy (wi hou fai h), Sa sloy (wi hou he law of god), Duessa/Fidessa (falsehood a d he Roma Church) o ame a few. hese evildoers figh Redcrosse K igh hrough decei , lus , a d u ru h. herefore he mus be armed wi h fai h i Chris o overcome he evils of he spiri ual realm. As we ca see, equally Beowulf a d Redcrosse K igh have a vas amou of bravery. hey bo h defea e emies ha a ack or cap ure i oce people. hey bo h co s a ly pray o Chris for assis a ce i figh i g off evil hey e cou er as well as havi g sympa hy for hose i dis ress. hese quali ies idealized by ha es a d k igh hood, such as bravery, cour esy, ho or, a d galla ry oward wome are visible i bo h Beowulf a d Redcrosse K igh . O e varia io is ha wome are o as promi e i he Old E glish period a d wome are i he Middle Age period. We see his i bo h poems.
I Beowulf we o ly hear abou Wealh heow, Hro hgar’s quee , a d Gre del mo her. However i “ he Faerie Quee e,” we see ma y wome charac ers, Gloria a, U a, Duessa/Fidessa, Lucifera (Hell), Caelia (Heave ly), Fidelia (Fai h), Spere za (Hope), a d Charissa (Chari y). I some way or a o her Redcrosse has a co ec io o hese wome , good a d bad. Addi io ally bo h heroes have a e cou er wi h a charac er from hell. Beowulf dives i o he lake (perso ifica io of hell) where Gre del’s mo her is wai i g o a ack. He ca o cu her wi h his sword, so he osses i away a d fi ds a larger sword killi g Gre del’s mo her by cu i g her head off. He sees Gre del dead body earby a d cu s off his head as a rophy a d re ur o De mark (pg. 61, 1356-84). his expresses a impor a vir ue, loyal y. Redcrosse K igh e cou ers Lucifera (Quee of Hell) a d he parade of vices. He has bee weake ed by his visi o he House of Pride. Al hough he had he i s i c ive good se se o flee from ha cas le, his co scie ce is s ill a work. his failure leads him ear dea h i he du geo of Orgoglio, a gia ha represe s godless pride. Ar hur (represe s mag ifice ce) comes alo g a d helps Redcrosse rise up from his lowes s a e (Ca o 7). Redcrosse also defea s he drago . Jus as Chris desce ded o hell o defea Sa a , Redcrosse had o e er he hellish mou h of he drago o fi ally kill i . He is o vic orious alo e he is saved wice by very imely help. he Well of Life a d he ree of Life, bo h represe s he grace ha God gives o ma ki d, which aids Chris ia i da ger of falli g prey o si (Ca o 10). o ma er how well equipped or prepared a Chris ia is, he is o ma ch for si a d dea h wi hou he u derserved grace of God. hus he message abou he Chris ia life is o e of humili y; we ca ever ake he credi for God’s vic ory. A o her similari y of bo h hese warriors are rewards for bei g heroes, however i very differe ways. Af er Beowulf kills Gre del he is co sider he grea es hero i Da ish his ory. Hro hgar says ha Beowulf will ever lack for riches, he horses a d me of he Gea s were all richly ador ed, a d a par y was held o celebra e Beowulf’s vic ory (pg. 48-52, 710-915). Redcrosse K igh , o he o her ha d, will receive his reward i heave . If he co i ues o live si less a d figh agai s evildoers he will receive e er al life. he ba le will o e d u il he e d of he world, whe Chris will reveal which religio is false a d which is rue. While he code mai ai s ha ho or is gai ed duri g life hrough deeds, Chris ia i y asser s ha glory lies i he af erlife. Chris ia doc ri e also advoca es a peaceful, forgivi g a i ude oward o e’s e emies (Ca o 12). Jus as hey bo h have similari ies Redcrosse K igh has flaws as well. Redcrosse ru s i o Despair, a gloomy old ma ha k ows Redcrosse’s si a d weak esses a d almos persuades him o ake his ow life. Despair is o o e of he seve deadly si s however a Chris ia should o be caugh i despair, as i is a si o ake your ow life. Agai as a oble a d courageous k igh , Redcrosse ob ai assis a ce from Caelia a d her daugh ers i he House of Holi ess o regai his s re g h. I bo h poems, Beowulf a d Redcrosse K igh developed from heroic warriors i o wise leaders.
Beowulf rises from a u fre ed warrior o a reliable ki g a d Redcrosse K igh eve ually becomes S . George, he pa ro sai of E gla d. Bo h possessed he ecessary charac eris ics o become very successful obles. hough hese wo ou looks are somewha opposi io al, each charac er ac s as socie y dic a es. Beowulf ac ed as a hero-warrior a d Redcrosse as a chivalric-warrior. hough heir Chris ia values are somewha similar. he images of warrior code prese ed i bo h poems are sig ifica roles ha are impor a o Chris ia life—Fai h a d Holi ess. As s a ed i he Bible “Fai h wi hou works is dead.”
Orders Issued from Ephesus for A General Massacre. 37. IV. VIII. Thrace and Macedonia Occupied by the Pontic Armies. 38. IV. VI. Roman Intervention. 39. III. XII. Roman Wealth. 40. IV. V. Taurisci. 41. III. VI. Pressure of the War. 42. II. VIII. Silver Standard of Value. 43. III. VI. Pressure of the War. 44. III. I. Comparison between Carthage and Rome. 45. IV. X. Proscription-Lists. 46. III. III. Autonomy, III. VII. the State of Culture in Spain, III. XII. Coins and Moneys. 47. III. XII. Coins and Moneys. 48. III. XIII. Increase of Amusements. 49. In the house, which Sulla inhabited when a young man, he paid for the ground-floor a rent of 3000 sesterces, and the tenant of the upper story a rent of 2000 sesterces (Plutarch, Sull. 1); which, capitalized at two-thirds of the usual interest on capital, yields nearly the above amount. This was a cheap dwelling. That a rent of 6000 sesterces (60 pounds) in the capital is called a high one in the case of the year 629 (Vell. ii. 10) must have been due to special circumstances. 50. III. I
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