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История История     История История

Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

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Speeches workers Grod o provi ce i 1905-1907 a d he emerge ce of rade u io ism Russia Empire i he XX Ce ury e ered i o a complex eco omic a d poli ical e viro me . Eco omic recovery la e XIX ce ury gave way o a prolo ged eco omic crisis of 1900-1903. he defea of he au ocracy i he war wi h Japa had fur her aggrava ed he si ua io i he cou ry. Grod o provi ce experie ci g he same ega ive processes, bu wi h grea er dep h. he worki g class of Grod o provi ce was he mos umerous amo g all 5 of Belarusia provi ces. A he 417 e erprises were u der he supervisio of fac ory i spec io , were employed 15496 workers . Edge of he prole aria , as well as he e ire worki g class of Russia, subjec ed o ru hless exploi a io , was poli ically o righ s. here are ma y e erprises were closed a d swi ched o a shor er worki g day duri g he eco omic crisis. his led o a i crease i u employme , while wages have decli ed by more ha half. All his co ribu ed o he rise of he labor moveme . hus, i he period 1901-1904 he was a revolu io ary si ua io . i he s ruggle o improve he eco omic si ua io of he workers par icipa ed i 9 ci ies a d ow s i Grod o Regio : Grod o, Volkovysk, Slo im, Smorgo , Oshmya , Svisloch, Skidel, Lakes. I was orga ized 64 s rikes, a d he o al umber of s rikers more ha 5 housa d people. Poli ical s ruggle i he same period reached 11 ci ies a d ow s. Poli ical s rikes were held i Grod o (3), Smorgo (3), Slo im (2), Vaukavysk, Ashmya y, Ruzha y, I dura (o e). o al provi ce ook place o 12 s rikes, 11 demo s ra io s a d 98 ga heri gs a d demo s ra io s. he umber of s rikers has reached 11.5 housa d workers, demo s ra ors - 4,2 housa d, par icipa s ga heri gs a d demo s ra io s - 15,1 housa d Almos workers Grod o provi ce were i he va guard of he libera io moveme i Belarus . he prologue of he revolu io were he eve s of 9 Ja uary 1905. Resul s of &quo ;Bloody Su day&quo ; i S . Pe ersburg s irred up he whole of Russia. he s rikes, s ree demo s ra io s a d rallies of pro es swep across he cou ry. he Belarusia provi ces i Ja uary of 20 housa d workers were o s rike (i Grod o - 1200). I Grod o, Bialys ok, Bres -Li ovsk, po s, Skidel Big Beres ovi sa, Volkovysk, Slo im, a d o her ci ies a d ow s provi ce s opped he fac ories, shops, closed shops, shops. For example, he s rike of solidari y wi h he S . Pe ersburg workers i he ow of Grod o Cou y Kry ki 17-19 Ja uary 1905 i was prepared by he orga iza io of he Social Democracy of he Ki gdom of Pola d a d Li hua ia a d he Social-Democra ic Commi ee of he Bu d. S rikers all 46 a eries ow . Before worki g disarmed all he local au hori ies, cap ured by admi is ra ive age cies, he police broke up a d des royed all he affairs of he parish cou cils a d por rai s of he ki g i all i s i u io s, cu dow elepho e poles hrough Volkovysk, Sokolki, Bialys ok, Grod o. Ma y of he s rikers were armed wi h revolvers. Demo s ra ors (more ha 2 housa d people) marched hrough he ow si gi g revolu io ary so gs a d sloga s: &quo ;Dow wi h he au ocracy gover me !&quo ;, &quo ;Lo g live he people's revolu io ,&quo ; &quo ;Give us 8-hour worki g day&quo ;.

he rebels drove he whole day all borough. By order of he Gover or i Kry ki were i roduced roops, who wi h grea difficul y, suppressed he ac io of he workers . he summer a d duri g he Oc ober All-Russia poli ical s rike i he Grod o provi ce recorded 39 of he workers a d peasa s. I respo se o a mu i y o he Ba leship Po emki &quo ;were he soldiers of i dividual par s of Grod o a d Bres -Li ovsk garriso s. U der he pressure of revolu io ary eve s of he au ocracy gover me was forced o make some co cessio s. Published Oc ober 17, 1905 royal ma ifes o proclaimed he freedom of speech, assembly, a d associa io a d he i violabili y of perso , he co ve i g of he Duma wi h legisla ive powers. For he mos par recorded i he ma ifes of he righ s a d freedoms were declara ive i a ure a d by he au ocracy gover me was a a emp o diver he workers from revolu io ary ac io . For he workers he same period of he begi i g of he revolu io became he s age of heir poli ical &quo ;ma uri y&quo ; a d he sar's ma ifes o o Oc . 17, 1905 - promp ed he es ablishme of orga iza io s ha defe d heir righ s a d i eres s - rade u io s. Accordi g o repor s, i Pri ema skogo regio already i 1898 appeared u io a ers. I u i es workers Bialys ok a d Kry ok a d a ers Smorgo a d Oshmya (loca ed a ha ime wi hi he provi ce of Vil a). Predecessors of he rade u io s is differe fac ory, shop assembly, commissio s, s rike fu d. Grod o provi ce ha had emerged i he XIX-XX ce uries, various social welfare a d professio al socie ies. For example, Bialys ok professio al socie y welfare craf workers emerged i he la e XIX ce ury a d umbered i i s ra ks abou 300 people . hese socie ies o o ly have provided ma erial assis a ce o he sick a d emporarily o worki g members of socie y, bu also pu forward requireme s o employers o improve worki g co di io s, higher wages. he au um for he ex wave of revolu io ary upsurge, i Belarus a d Grod o provi ce did he firs mass labor orga iza io s, who have orga ized he workers. O e of he firs i he Grod o regio , i Oc ober 1905 duri g he Oc ober ge eral s rike, poli ical orga iza io formed he All-Russia U io Railway S a io Vaŭkavysk-ce ral . he growi g revolu io ary moveme i he cou ry raised he ques io of armed i surrec io . I bega i Moscow o December 9, 1905. Bu i spi e of he heroism a d e aci y of he workers by 18 December was bru ally suppressed. I Belarus, he Bolsheviks failed o orga ize a armed uprisi g. Bu poli ical s rikes a d demo s ra io s were held i ma y Belarusia ow s a d villages. Ce ral Bureau of he All-Russia railway u io a d rade u io commi ees of 29 railways have a ou ced a December 7, 1905 All-Russia s rike. O e of he firs respo ded o his call he railway s a io Vaŭkavysk-Ce ral. I was se up a s rike commi ee, headed by he e gi eer of Commu ica io s, Chief of he 3rd sec io of service road Polesskii railways, a member of he All-Russia U io of Railwayme Yu Yu Vish evsky A ma y key poi s of he railway has es ablished local commi ees a d offices. Duri g he eve s of December, hey seized he admi is ra ive power i some places he li e a d made orders i addi io o he local railway au hori ies.

Were suspe ded commercial office, which has o promulga ed or shipme . All ma erial values a he s a io guarded clo hes wa chme appoi ed by he Commi ee. A some s a io s Polessia railroad rai s were delayed, obs ruc ed he admi is ra io of pos al goods. Commi ees a d offices spread amo g he workers a d employees, he public a i-gover me leafle s, flyers, orga izi g rallies a d s rikes o dema d from he Public Roads Admi is ra io a 8-hour workday, higher wages, have called for he s ruggle o over hrow he exis i g social order. he s rike las ed u il December 14, 1905. She was crushed by mili ary force. December 20 leadership of he s rike commi ee, as well as ac ive par icipa s i he s rike: Mogul'skii, Krushevsky, ikho ov, Roma ovsky, shovels, Sidorsky, archevsky a d Sha i sky were arres ed a d brough o rial . I Grod o, u der he leadership of he Vil ius Group RSDLP, he Mili ary Revolu io ary Commi ee, he orga iza io of he Ge eral Jewish Labor U io Bu d from 12 o 16 December 1905 here was a ci y-wide poli ical s rike. A he same ime i he ci y of 800 mi ers were o s rike, all educa io al i s i u io s. S rikes, demo s ra io s were held i Bres -Li ovsk, Bialys ok, villages Opole, Lyadovichi, you ges Kobri dis ric a d o her loca io s . I he spa of he s rike moveme Grod o regio was i he va guard of Belarusia provi ces. Of he 417 pla s ha were u der he supervisio of fac ory i spec io , 270 were covered by he s rikes, which i volved 79.9 per ce of he workers. I was he highes amo g Belarusia provi ces. I 1905, i Grod o provi ce occurred o 30 s rikes, 52 demo s ra io s, 126 rallies a d demo s ra io s . Af er he defea of he December armed uprisi g i Moscow u der he pressure of imperial repressio revolu io receded. Bu i he las year of a revolu io ary s rike moveme i Grod o regio was covered by 28 compa ies. Grod o April 8 marked s rikes workshops Kaufaksa J., E. S ei , G. Veli a, bakeries Karle . April 9 was a s rike of workers ailor shop I. Lapidus (7 workers). Bu he performa ces are mos ly had a eco omic focus. Rece poli ical s rikes were held i he Grod o regio o celebra e he May 1, 1907 hey were orga ized i Zelve, Iŭie, Lida, Smorgo , Grod o. ovember 24 ook s rike of workers provi cial pri i g. December 4 suppor ed hem worki g seve priva e pri ers. December 9 obacco fac ory workers we o s rike Shereshevsky (125 people), iro works Faj gold (30), syrup pla (8 people), a ca dy fac ory (30 people), four pri ers (111 people), &quo ; ema &quo ; bookbi di g fac ory (111) 17, sar orius (65), a d o her s rikes were orga ized o express sympa hy o he members of he Social Democra ic fac io i he S a e Duma of he 2- d co voca io , o rial . Wi h he re rea of he revolu io , he au ocracy gover me i e sified repressio agai s workers a d heir orga iza io s. U il he e d of 1908 were defea ed, ma y local orga iza io s he All-Russia Railway U io i Grod o regio . Survivi g he rade u io orga iza io s had go e deep u dergrou d, or emporarily ur ed i s ac ivi ies. Hu dreds of workers, rade u io is s, members of he Social-democra ic direc io , he Ge eral Jewish Labor U io Bu d Pri ema skogo regio for heir ac ive par icipa io i he eve s of 1905-1906 years of he revolu io were fired, jailed a d for resses, se e ced o lo g erms of exile i Siberia a d he Far or h, suffered he dea h pe al y.

After all, it is language that allows us to communicate with each other far more precisely than any animal can. Language enables us to formulate joint plans, to teach one another, and to learn from what others have experienced elsewhere or in the past. With it, we can store precise representations of the world in our minds, and hence encode and process information far more efficiently than any animal can. Without language we could never have conceived and built Chartres Cathedral—or V-2 rockets. For these reasons, I speculated in Chapter Two that the Great Leap Forward (the stage in human history when innovation and art at last emerged) was made possible by the emergence of spoken language as we know it. Between human language and the vocalizations of any animal lies a seemingly unbridgeable gulf. It has been clear since the time of Darwin that the mystery of human language origins is an evolutionary problem: now was this unbridgeable gulf nevertheless bridged? If we accept that we evolved from animals lacking human speech, then our language must have evolved and become perfected with time, along with the human Pelvis, skull, tools, and art

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97. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

98. Economic Relations between Kazakhstan and Russia

99. British painting in the 17-18th centuries (Британская живопись 17-18 вв.)


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