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Formation and development of political parties in the Republic of Belarus

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he forma io of a mul ipar y sys em i Belarus, as i o her former Sovie republics, was due o several fac ors: he crisis of eco omic a d poli ical sys em of Sovie socie y, he collapse of he Sovie U io a d he fall i pres ige of he CPSU, reduci g he i flue ce of commu is ideology, belief i he u sui abili y of a o e-par y sys em, e ha ceme , especially i amo g i ellec uals, social democra ic a d liberal ideas, proclaimi g he sovereig y of he Republic of Belarus a d discussio s abou he choice of pa hs of developme . I fac , he begi i g of he forma io of poli ical par ies i Belarus associa ed wi h he emerge ce a d forma io i 1986-1987. ki ds of discussio clubs a d i formal orga iza io s ( &quo ; alaq,&quo ; Legacy &quo ;,&quo ; u eishya &quo ;,&quo ; Mar yralog Belarus &quo ;, e c.). I Oc ober 1988 o he basis of i formal associa io s was crea ed orgkomi Belarusia Popular Fro (BPF) for he res ruc uri g of he &quo ;Revival&quo ;, he co s i ue assembly which was held i Ju e 1989 i Vil ius. Af er Co gress II (March 1991, Mi sk), Belarusia Popular Fro was ra sformed i o a par y wi h a ver ical orga iza io al s ruc ure, i dividual membership, he payme of co ribu io s o he forma io of heir cells i he labor collec ives. I erms of social upheaval he early 1990's., Complex socio-eco omic processes, co fro a io of power a d opposi io forces o form poli ical par ies of various ideological direc io s, formed a mul ipar y sys em. I 1991, he republic ac ually exis ed several par ies, i cludi g he Commu is Par y of Belarus a d s ood i opposi io o i . I Augus 1991, af er he failed coup GKChP Supreme Cou cil of he Republic of Belarus has suspe ded he ac ivi ies of he Commu is Par y of Belarus. I December 1991, was es ablished he Belarusia Commu is Par y (BCP) was i corpora ed i May 1992 I February 1993, Parliame reversed i s decisio o suspe d he ac ivi ies of CPB, af er which he republic here were wo Commu is par ies. A impor a role i shapi g he par y sys em i he cou ry played a preside ial elec io i July 1994, a d he Law &quo ;O poli ical par ies&quo ;, adop ed by he Supreme Sovie of Belarus i Oc ober 1994, he Law for he firs ime i he his ory of he Belarusia legisla io was laid dow procedure for he forma io a d ac ivi ies of poli ical par ies . Based o he Law of he mi imum umber of members required o regis er a poli ical par y, was i creased from 100 o 500 people. Af er he law &quo ;O poli ical par ies&quo ; (1994) by vir ue of heir re-regis ra io was carried ou , which passed all 24 exis i g a ha ime he poli ical par ies. Af er he refere dum i 1996 a d he dissolu io of he Supreme Sovie of he 13 h co voca io of he umber of poli ical par ies i he republic fell, was a i e se process of reorga iza io . However, some par ies were regis ered o ly o paper, were o amo g he popula io of serious social suppor , orga iza io al u i s i he field, did o co duc a y work. Accordi g o he decisio of he Supreme Cour of he Republic of Belarus were co sidered i ac ive Huma i aria Par y, he Belarusia Research a d Produc io Co gress, he Belarusia Par y of &quo ;clea si g&quo ;, he Belarusia Par y of Beer Lovers, e c.

O he forma io of a mul ipar y sys em i Belarus has a sig ifica impac Decree of he Preside of he Republic of Belarus of 26 Ja uary 1999 &quo ;O some measures o regula e he ac ivi ies of poli ical par ies, rade u io s a d associa io s, u der which was held o re-regis ra io . he decree has i creased he mi imum umber of par y members required for regis ra io , wi h 500 o 1000 from he majori y of oblas s a d Mi sk. As a resul of he 28 exis i g a he ime of he issua ce of he Decree of poli ical par ies were reregis ered 17. I 2007, he cou ry's Supreme Cour ruled o liquida e he Belarusia Ecological Gree Par y &quo ;BEZ&quo ; a d he Belarusia Par y of Wome &quo ; adzeya&quo ;. hus, a prese (May 2008), he par y sys em i Belarus i cludes 15 officially regis ered poli ical par ies. Depe di g o your poli ical orie a io , ideologies, a i udes owards s a ehood of he republic, o he problems of a io al a d cul ural revival of he Belarusia par y ca be divided i o several groups. he firs group i cludes he &quo ;Lef &quo ; par ies: he Commu is Par y of Belarus (CPB), he Agraria Par y, Belarusia Pa rio ic Par y, he Republica Par y of Labor a d Jus ice, Commu is Par y of Belarus (PCB). hese par ies uphold he socialis pa h of developme , he es ablishme of sys ema ic a d s a e-regula ed commodi y-mo ey rela io s. I he social sphere, hey s a d for he righ o work, o provide free seco dary a d higher educa io , free medical care, dece housi g, accessible recrea io , social jus ice, welfare a d safe y of i s ci ize s. Wi h regard o he Commu is Par y of Belarus, as opposed o he Commu is Par y of Belarus, have suppor ed he course co duc ed i he cou ry a d he s a e ideology, he PCB is ow los i s i flue ce i socie y, e ered i o a coali io wi h righ -wi g &quo ;par ies ( he U i ed Civil a d B F) a d opposed he exis i g power, i s i er al a d foreig policy. he seco d group (social-democra ic a d socialis par ies) may i clude he Belarusia Social Democra ic Par y (Gramada), Par y of he Belarusia Social Democra ic Hramada, he Social Democra ic Par y of popular co se . hey advoca e a socially orie ed marke eco omy reforms, wi h s ro g social pro ec io of popula io from he s a e a d seek o express a posi io ha combi es a io al radi io s wi h i er a io al experie ce, which avoids he ex remes of &quo ;righ &quo ; a d &quo ;lef -wi g radicalism. he firs wo co sider hemselves o be bearers of he social-democra ic radi io s i Belarus, origi a i g from he es ablished i 1903, he Belarusia Socialis Hramada. Social Democra ic Par y of popular co se , ra her ha joi i g he opposi io , i favor of he u io of modera e social a d poli ical forces, he co solida io of he Belarusia socie y. he esse ce of he idea of popular co se is o aba do he revolu io ary leaps i favor of evolu io ary developme based o sou d a d progressive reforms. A he same ime, he par y does o exclude he poli ical s ruggle, bu limi s i s rigid framework of law a d morali y. he hird group co sis s of he Par y of he liberal-co serva ive orie a io - U i ed Civil Par y (UCP) a d he Liberal Democra ic Par y (LDP).

hey u derli e he commi me o liberal values, marke eco omy, democracy a d he mul ipar y sys em, guara ee civil righ s a d liber ies. LDP, while claimi g co s ruc ive opposi io o power, while a he same ime suppor s he Preside of he Republic of Belarus a d cri icizi g he umber of opposi io par ies. his is he larges i he cou ry's poli ical par y. he mai objec ive of he UCP, as emphasized i he held i April 2008, he Eleve h Par y Co gress, is o s re g he he Par y's i flue ce i socie y, a rac i g o i s ra ks of professio als a d i flue ial people, s re g he i g a d developi g regio al s ruc ures. his is especially impor a , give ha he delega es o he Co gress harshly cri icized he erve ce er of he UCP because he &quo ;looked up from he regio s&quo ;, wi hdrew from ac ive poli ical ac ivi ies of ma agers a d ech icia s are able o a rac ew members i o he par y. A four h group ( he a io al-democra ic par ies) are he Co serva ive Chris ia Par y - BPF a d BPF - o e of he oldes par ies i he republic. he divisio of he par y i o wo i depe de orga iza io s have bee caused by a sharp decli e i i s credibili y i he poli ical life of he cou ry, as well as leaders of opposi g views o eve s i socie y a d i he par y process. Differe ces wi hi he B F have bee caused by he reluc a ce Z. Poz yak a d his suppor ers o cha ge he s ra egy a d ac ics i he a io al-democra ic moveme , o compromise wi h po e ial allies. Disse sio BPF, ideological a d orga iza io al separa io , disrup io of coopera io wi h poli ical par ies of he democra ic direc io , claim o poli ical isola io , weak i s i u io al s ruc ures - all his led o a sharp drop i ra ki gs i bo h par ies. he fif h group i cludes he Belarusia Gree Par y, he Republica Par y a d he Belarusia Social a d Spor s Par y. A hese par ies here is o sys em-ideological pri ciples, a clear relia ce o cer ai social s ra a a d he possibili y of a sig ifica impac o poli ical life i he cou ry. radi io al lef -righ poli ical divide wi h regard o Belarus is largely arbi rary a d does o reflec he diversi y of i er-par y differe ces. A prese , he par y sys em of he Republic of Belarus is i he forma ive s age, is u s able a d has i s ow peculiari ies. O e of he fac ors hamperi g he developme of par y buildi g i Belarus, is he fac ha oday he par y is o represe ed i he execu ive bra ch. Wi hou represe a io i power s ruc ures, hey are u able o play he role of facili a or a d liaiso , commu ica io bridge be wee s a e a d socie y, o become, fi ally, a form of ci ize par icipa io i poli ical decisio -maki g a d co rol au hori y. Because poli ical par ies do o have he power levers o address he pressi g problems of people, people do o see he exis e ce of large par ies be efi a d do o eed hem. I is herefore becomes releva guida ce &quo ;bridges&quo ;, he dialogue a d close coopera io wi h he au hori ies, poli ical par ies, bri gi g hem o he co sidera io a d adop io of impor a socio-eco omic a d poli ical decisio s. I co ec io wi h he weak ma erial- ech ical base of mos poli ical par ies does o ow he media, shapi g public opi io , a d s a e a d i depe de media are usually ryi g o dis a ce hemselves from hem.

There was so much to do, and he wasn't sure he could see it through to the end. The Transition had proved to be as hideously complicated as he'd expected. Creating the Special Administrative Zone where companies like Douglas and Boeing and Ford could fully exploit the patents they already had on future technologies meant that the market drove the pace of innovation as fast as it possibly could, without sending a shockwave through the "old" economy. But of course, it had also meant establishing an enclave within the body politic of the Republic, which many saw as being a protected reserve for the worst sort of subversive elements. It had cost him enormous amounts of political capital to ram the thing through Congress, even with a sunset clause, and he just knew that his enemies would play merry hell with it at every opportunity. Indeed, they were already doing so. The damnable House Un-American Activities Committee of Congressman Dies had suddenly stopped investigating the Ku Klux Klan and the German American Bund and announced hearings into the Zone that very morning

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