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История История     Историческая личность Историческая личность

The history of England can be defined as the gradual process of Parliament asserting its authority over the monarchy

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For: ESLG 3150 course opic: he his ory of E gla d ca be defi ed as he gradual process of Parliame asser i g i s au hori y over he mo archy. erm: Spri g I, 2000 he poli ical his ory of Bri ish Isles over he pas 800 years has bee largely o e of reduci g he power of he mo archy a d ra sferri g au hori y o a Lo do -based Parliame as he sovereig legisla ive body for all of Bri ai . his developme has resul ed i poli ical, social a d religious co flic s, as well as evolvi g gover me al a d co s i u io al i s i u io s. he early poli ical his ory of he Bri ish Isles is he s ory of four i depe de cou ries (E gla d, Sco la d, Wales a d Irela d), bu a domi a E glish poli ical a d mili ary expa sio ism over he ce uries resul ed i a u i ed cou ry (U i ed Ki gdom). he las E gla d’s i vader Duke William promp ly se ou o es ablish firm co rol over his E glish ki gdom. He reorga ized he gover me by maki g he old Saxo wi a i o a “Grea Cou cil”, which i cluded he grea lords of he realm a d me regularly u der William’s direc io , a d by es ablishi g Curia Regis, a perma e cou cil of royal advisers. William’s you ges so He ry I ruled he cou ry for 35 years a d duri g his reig he wo he suppor of baro s by si gi g a “Char er of Liber ies”, which lis ed a d guara ees heir righ s (i dividual liber ies). Early E glish mo archs had co siderable power, bu ge erally accep ed advice a d some limi a io s o heir au hori y. Powerful Fre ch- orma baro s opposed Ki g Joh ’s dic a orial rule by forci g him o sig Mag a Car a i 1215. his docume pro ec ed he feudal aris ocracy ra her he he ordi ary ci ize , bu i came o be regarded as a cor ers o e of Bri ish liber ies. I res ric ed he mo arch’s powers; forced him o ake advice; i creased he i flue ce of he aris ocracy; a d s ipula ed ha o ci ize could be pu ished or kep i priso wi hou a fair rail. Such developme s e couraged he es ablishme of parliame ary s ruc ures. I 1265, Simo de Mo for called obles a d o -aris ocra s o form a Cou cil or Parliame o wi he suppor of people. o i were i vi ed o o ly he grea baro s a d clergy, bu also represe a ives of he k igh s of shires a d from he ow s. his i i ia ive was followed i 1295 by he Model Parliame (because i served a model for la er Parliame s) of Edward I, which was he firs represe a ive E glish Parliame . I s wo sec io s co sis ed of he bishops, baro s, wo represe a ives of he k igh s of each shire a d wo represe a ives from each impor a ow . I his way Parliame wo he “power of he purse”: by refusi g o agree o ew axes, i could force ki gs o do as i wished. As Parliame became more i flue ial i wo o her righ s, such as he power of impeach a d ry royal officials for misbehavior. From here we ca co clude ha by he e d of Edward’s reig he peculiarly E glish co cep of gover me , i which a s ro g ki g wi h powerful royal officials is s ill limi ed by he commo law a d by Parliame , was comple e. However, he Parliame was oo large o rule he cou ry effec ively. A Privy Cou cil, comprisi g he mo arch a d cour advisers, developed. his was he royal gover me ou side Parliame , u il i los power o parliame ary s ruc ures i he la e eigh ee h a d early i e ee h ce uries.

Al hough parliame ow had some limi ed powers agai s he mo arch, here was a re ur o royal domi a ce i udor E gla d i 1485. Mo archs co rolled Parliame a d summo ed i whe hey eeded o raise mo ey. Parliame showed more resis a ce o royal rule u der he S uar mo archy from 1603 by usi g i s weapo of fi a cial co rol. Parliame bega o refuse royal reques s for mo ey. I forced Charles I o sig he Pe i io of Righ s i 1628, which fur her res ric ed he mo arch’s powers a d preve ed him from raisi g axes wi hou Parliame ’s co se . Charles a emp ed o arres parliame ary leaders i he House of Commo s i self. His failure o do mea ha he mo arch was i fu ure prohibi ed from e eri g he Commo s. As he resul of i civil war broke ou i 1642. he Pro es a Parliame aria s u der O. Cromwell wo he mili ary s ruggle agai s he Ca holic Royalis s. Charles was beheaded i 1649 a d hee mo archy was abolished. Bu i did ’ las lo g i 1660 hey res ored he S uar Charles II o he hro e. Parliame e ded his expa sive wars a d imposed fur her res ric io s, such as Habeas Corpus Ac i 1679, which s ipula ed ha o ci ize could be impriso ed wi hou a fair a d speedy rail. I he early a d mid six ee h ce ury cou ry was ruled by Ki g He ry VIII (ki g 1509-1547) who had made Parliame his willi g ool a d had replaced Ca holicism wi h he Church of E gla d. He ry was succeeded by hree of his childre (Edward VI, Mary I, Elizabe h I) i successio . Bu o ly Elizabe h made a grea co ribu io duri g her reig (1558-1603). She allowed a y form of worship ha fi i o he ra her loose framework of ideas ha Parliame had es ablished for he Church of E gla d. Bu she would accep o e ha co flic ed wi h her au hori y as he head of ha church. Af er he pope excommu ica ed her i 1570, she had Parliame declare ha Ca holicism was reaso . Parliame los power duri g her reig . I did o mee of e , as she eeded o ask i levy axes for her. I heory Parliame co i ued o have all of he powers i had wo duri g he Middle Ages. he Elizabe ha reig la er was called “ he E glish Re aissa ce”. A d his is righ . She did a lo o her Ki gdom. O of i was he ope i g of he rade rou s o Russia, rade compa ies like he Eas I dia Compa y, he Muscovy Compa y a d he Virgi ia Compa y. he S uar mo archs who succeeded Elizabe h ry o impose absolu ism a d o rule by “divi e righ ”. Bu he E glish Parliame , asser i g i s a cie righ s a d privileges, challe ged hem. he resul was a s ruggle ha las ed hrough he be er par of he seve ee h ce ury, culmi a i g i he vic ory of Parliame over he ki gs. I he age whe absolu ism riumphed almos everywhere, E gla d was he s riki g excep io of he rule. Growi g opposi io o he S uar s ce ered i Parliame . he S uar s disliked Parliame , bu were depe de upo i because o ly he House of Commo s had he righ o levy axes. he S uar s i sis ed hey had absolu e au hori y o follow wha ever policies hey chose. he co flic be wee Parliame a d he ki g came o a climax u der Charles I (ki g 1625-1649). I 1626 Charles fou d himself a war wi h bo h Fra ce a d Spai . Parliame refused o gra ew axes u il i had had “redress of grieva ces”.

Led by Sir Joh Elio , he members of Commo s fi ally forced Charles o sig he “Pe i io of Righ ” i 1628. his pac guara eed cer ai righ s of Parliame a d of i dividual E glishme agai s heir ki g. he firs Parliame of 1640, he so-called “Shor ” Parliame , ma less he a mo h. Bu soo af er Charles was forced o call a o her Parliame , which came o be called he “Lo g” Parliame because i me off a d o for we y years (1640-1660). I 1641 he Lo g Parliame se ou o domi a e he gover me . More impor a , i passed a series of ac s o make absolu e mo archy impossible. From 1642 o 1645 he civil war broke i E gla d. I was be wee Suppor ers of Ki g Charles (Cavaliers) a d he suppor ers of he Parliame (Rou dheads) u der he rule of Oliver Cromwell. he “Rou dheads” wo i his war a d he members who remai ed from he previous Parliame come o be called he “Rump” (si i g par of Parliame ). I 1649 Charles was beheaded a d la er Oliver Cromwell became he Ki g of E gla d. Af er his dea h i 1658 his so Richard ook co rol over he cou ry. Bu he was a poor ruler a d soo resig ed. I 1660 he survivi g members of he Lo g Parliame were called back i o sessio o i vi e Charles S uar o become Ki g Charles II of E gla d. Charles II had his problems wi h Parliame , bu he was usually able o surmou hem, a d he always k ew whe he ime had come o back dow . he growi g power of Parliame agai s he mo arch i he seve ee h ce ury was reflec ed i he developme of more orga ized poli ical par ies. wo groups (Whigs a d ories) became domi a , a d his fea ure was o charac erize fu ure Bri ish wo-par y poli ics, i which poli ical power has shif ed be wee wo mai par ies. he Whigs did ’ accep he Ca holic sympa hizer James II as successor o Charles II a d wa ed religious freedom for al Pro es a s. he ories ge erally suppor ed royalis beliefs, a d helped Charles II o secure James’s righ o succeed him. He (James) a emp ed o rule wi hou Parliame a d ig ored his laws. His ma ipula io s forced ories o joi Whigs i i vi i g he Pro es a William of Ora ge o i erve e. William arrived i E gla d i 1688, James fled o Fra ce a d William succeeded o he hro e as E gla d’s firs co s i u io al mo arch. Si ce o force was i volved, his eve is called he Bloodless or Glorious Revolu io . Royal powers were fur her res ric ed u der he Declara io of Righ s (1689), which s re g he ed Parliame a d provided some civil liber ies. he Glorious Revolu io of 1688 a d he Bill of Righ s of 1689 es ablished Parliame o ce a d for all as he equal par er of he ki g. his divisio of power was soo o prove i self a far more effec ive mea s of gover me ha he absolu e mo archies of he co i e , a d i assured ha he co s i u io al developme of E gla d would co i ue.

With this new generation, the music underwent a very fundamental change - the search for new expressiveness and a vocabulary to address modern life and culture broke the bounds imposed by a use of preexisting material. Jazz which previously had been defined by this material now was to be defined by the new, the evolutionary, and the exploratory. The History of Jazz has been relatively neat and concise in its course. One major effect of the change would be a splintering of current directions - producing many identifiable and concurrent ‘schools’. The History was no longer neat with clearly defined styles and time lines. A disregard for the ‘European’ mannerisms of the Cool School • TEXTURE was homophonic • IMPROVISATION completely soloist oriented This history chronicles a steady evolution with the revolutionary a reaction or rejection of past practice. Yes, there were some very fundamental changes which occurred - but these changes did not reinvent or reject the musical elements of Jazz. Each of the styles maintained a link with these musical elements varying only in emphasis - the foundations remained common and firm only the structures built upon the foundations were varied

1. The Church of England

2. The Castles of England

3. The history of Old English and its development

4. Реферат перевода с английского языка из книги “A History of England” by Keith Feiling

5. The history of Australia

6. The history of Christmas
The history of Christmas
7. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine
The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine
8. The history of Ancient Egypt
The history of Ancient Egypt

9. The history of Manhattan

10. The history of Germany and tourism

11. The history of grammatical study of the English language

12. Castles of England

13. On a decomposition of an element of a free metabelian group as a productof primitive elements

14. The people must fight for their laws as for their walls

15. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

16. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

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17. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

18. History of the USA

19. A Brief History of the Internet and Related Networks

20. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

21. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

22. The origin and history of the English language
The origin and history of the English language
23. Intellectual history of the Europe
Intellectual history of the Europe
24. The Tower of London
The Tower of London

25. Consequence of building the National Missile Defense

26. The face of every city is different. Washington D.C.

27. International Combating The Crimes Harming The Economic Development Of States

28. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

29. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

30. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

31. История развития компьютеров (Silicon Valley, its history & the best companies)

32. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

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Раздел: Миниатюры

33. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

34. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

35. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

36. The role of art in our life

37. Three Waves of Alvin Toffler. The Basic Points

38. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)
39. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain
40. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

41. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

42. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

43. The influence of the Great Britain on our daily life

44. The Queen of the UK

45. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

46. The house of my dream

47. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

48. The role of art in our life

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49. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

50. The fastest computers of the world

51. “The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease between XVIII-XX centuries – Facts or a Political Arithmetick?”

52. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

53. Преп. Максим исповедник о бесконечности человека (st. Maximus the confessor on the infinity of man)

54. Dark side of the monn - Жизнь после смерти
55. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)
56. Финансовые инструменты ("Financial Instruments. Teaching materials of the course")

57. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

58. The practice of modern medicine


60. The dark side of the moon

61. Перевод введения в книгу Й. Шумпетера History of economic analisys

62. The United States of America

63. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

64. London - the capital of Great Britain

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65. What type of toys do the kids prefer nowadays?

66. Culture of the youth

67. Problems of the youth

68. The 8th of March

69. Discovery of the New World

70. The protection of the environment
The protection of the environment
71. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease
The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease
72. The library of our institute
The library of our institute

73. The commonwealth of Australia

74. The Commonwealth of Australia

75. Model of the nucleus of atom and the table of elements

76. History of Basketball

77. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?

78. Washington is the capital of the USA

79. Flora and Fauna of the USA

80. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

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81. The political system of Ukraine

82. The cities of USA

83. Bosch, Hieronymus: The Temptation of St Anthony

84. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”

85. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century

86. Kastus Kalinovsky the Fighter for Independence of Belarus
Kastus Kalinovsky the Fighter for Independence of Belarus
87. Dawn of the digital information era
Dawn of the digital information era
88. History of Great Britain
History of Great Britain

89. Political System of the USA

90. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

91. The Snows of Mars

92. The declaration of independence

93. The political role of Great Britain in modern world

94. The war of the roses

95. History of runes

96. The Future of American Youths

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97. Was Poe being Ironic When He Wrote “The Black Cat”?

98. The Feather of Finist the Falcon

99. Prominent People of the Belarus

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