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The U.S. Army Campaigns of World War II
A Brief His ory of he U.S. Army i World War II I roduc io World War II was he larges a d mos viole armed co flic i he his ory of ma ki d. However, he half ce ury ha ow separa es us from ha co flic has exac ed i s oll o our collec ive k owledge. While World War II co i ues o absorb he i eres of mili ary scholars a d his oria s, as well as i s ve era s, a ge era io of America s has grow o ma uri y largely u aware of he poli ical, social, a d mili ary implica io s of a war ha , more ha a y o her, u i ed us as a people wi h a commo purpose. Highly releva oday, World War II has much o each us, o o ly abou he professio of arms, bu also abou mili ary prepared ess, global s ra egy, a d combi ed opera io s i he coali io war agai s fascism. Duri g he ex several years, he U.S. Army will par icipa e i he a io 's 50 h a iversary commemora io of World War II. he commemora io will i clude he publica io of various ma erials o help educa e America s abou ha war. he works produced will provide grea oppor u i ies o lear abou a d re ew pride i a Army ha fough so mag ifice ly i wha has bee called " he migh y e deavor." A Brief His ory of he U.S. Army i World War II highligh s he major grou d force campaig s duri g he six years of he war, offers sugges io s for fur her readi g, a d provides America s a oppor u i y o lear abou he Army's role i World War II. his brochure was prepared a he U.S. Army Ce er of Mili ary His ory by Way e M. Dzwo chyk (Europe) a d Joh Ray Ska es (Pacific). I hope his absorbi g accou of ha period will e ha ce your apprecia io of America achieveme s duri g World War II. M. P. W. S o e Secre ary of he Army he War i Europe World War I lef u resolved he ques io of who would domi a e Europe. he reme dous disloca io s caused by he war laid he grou dwork for he collapse of democra ic i s i u io s here a d se he s age for a seco d Germa a emp a co ques . A worldwide depressio ha bega i 1929 des royed he fragile democra ic regime i Germa y. I 1933 Adolf Hi ler led o power he a io al Socialis Germa Workers' ( azi) Par y, a mass moveme ha was virule ly a io alis ic, a idemocra ic, a d a i-Semi ic. He e ded parliame ary gover me , assumed dic a orial powers, a d proclaimed he hird Reich. he azi gover me i creased he s re g h of he Germa armed forces a d sough o over ur he Versailles rea y, o recover Germa erri ory los a he peace se leme , a d o re ur o he so-called Fa herla d Germa -speaki g mi ori ies wi hi he borders of surrou di g cou ries. he ul ima e goal of Hi ler's policy was o secure "livi g space" for he Germa "mas er race" i eas er Europe. A gambler by i s i c , Hi ler relied o diploma ic bluff a d mili ary i ova io o overcome Germa y's weak esses. He played skillfully o he divisio s amo g he Europea powers o gai ma y of his aims wi hou war. Wi h he I alia Fascis dic a or Be i o Mussoli i he a ou ced a Rome-Berli allia ce ( he Axis) i 1935. Mea while, i he Far Eas , he Japa ese-- he o ly Asia i dus rial power--cove ed he a ural resources of Chi a a d Sou heas Asia, bu fou d heir expa sio blocked by Europea colo ial powers or by he U i ed S a es.
Havi g seized Ma churia i 1931, hey bega a war agai s Chi a i 1937. he League of a io s failed o cou er effec ively Japa ese aggressio i Ma churia a d a I alia i vasio of E hiopia. Soo Germa y, I aly, a d Japa became allies, faci g Wes er democra ic gover me s ha wa ed o avoid a o her war a d he Sovie U io whose Commu is gover me was widely dis rus ed. he people of he U i ed S a es, havi g rejec ed he Versailles rea y a d he Cove a of he League of a io s af er World War I, remai ed largely i differe o mos i er a io al co cer s. hey firmly discou ed he likelihood of America i volveme i a o her major war, excep perhaps wi h Japa . Isola io is s re g h i Co gress led o he passage of he eu rali y Ac of 1937, maki g i u lawful for he U i ed S a es o rade wi h belligere s. America policy aimed a co i e al defe se a d desig a ed he avy as he firs li e of such defe se. he Army's role was o serve as he ucleus of a mass mobiliza io ha would defea a y i vaders who ma aged o figh heir way pas he avy a d he a io 's powerful coas al defe se i s alla io s. he a io al Defe se Ac of 1920 allowed a Army of 280,000, he larges i peace ime his ory, bu u il 1939 Co gress ever appropria ed fu ds o pay for much more ha half of ha s re g h. Mos of he fu ds available for ew equipme we o he fledgli g air corps. hroughou mos of he i erwar period, he Army was i y a d i sular, filled wi h hard-bi e , lo g-servi g volu eers sca ered i small garriso s hroughou he co i e al U i ed S a es, Hawaii, he Philippi es, a d Pa ama. Ye some i ova ive hi ki g a d prepara io for he fu ure ook place i he i erwar Army. Experime s wi h armored vehicles a d mo oriza io , air-grou d coopera io , a d he aerial ra spor of roops came o o hi g for lack of resources a d of co sis e high-level suppor . he Army did, however, develop a i eres i amphibious warfare a d i rela ed ech iques ha were he bei g pio eered by he U.S. Mari e Corps. By he ou break of war he Sig al Corps was a leader i improvi g radio commu ica io s, a d America ar illery prac iced he mos sophis ica ed fire-direc io a d -co rol ech iques i he world. I addi io , war pla s for various co i ge cies had bee draw up, as had i dus rial a d ma power mobiliza io pla s. Duri g he early 1930s Col. George C. Marshall, assis a comma da of he I fa ry School a For Be i g, Georgia, had earmarked a umber of you ger officers for leadership posi io s. Despi e such prepara io s, he Army as a whole was u ready for he war ha broke ou i Europe o 1 Sep ember 1939. he Ou break of War Duri g March 1938 Germa roops had occupied Aus ria, i corpora i g i i o he Reich. I Sep ember Hi ler a ou ced ha he "oppressio " of e h ic Germa s livi g i Czechoslovakia was i olerable a d ha war was ear. E gla d a d Fra ce me wi h Hi ler ( he Mu ich Pac ) a d compelled Czechoslovakia o cede i s fro ier dis ric s o Germa y i order o secure "peace i our ime." Peace, however, was o ly a illusio . Duri g March 1939 Hi ler seized he res of Czechoslovakia by force of arms a d he ur ed his a e io o Pola d. Al hough Bri ai a d Fra ce had guara eed he i egri y of Pola d, Hi ler a d Josef S ali , dic a or of he Sovie U io , sig ed a secre , mu ual o aggressio pac i Augus 1939.
Wi h he pac S ali bough ime o build up his s re g h a he expe se of Bri ai a d Fra ce, a d Hi ler gai ed a free ha d o deal wi h Pola d. Whe Hi ler's army i vaded Pola d o 1 Sep ember 1939, World War II bega . While Germa forces overra wes er Pola d, Sovie roops e ered from he eas o claim heir por io of ha cou ry. Fra ce a d Bri ai declared war o Germa y a d mobilized heir forces. he subseque period of decep ive i ac ivi y, las i g u il spri g, became k ow as he Pho y War. o hi g happe ed o i dica e ha World War II would differ sig ifica ly i s yle or empo from World War I. Bu he years si ce 1918 had brough impor a developme s i he use of a ks. A umber of s ude s of war-- he Bri ish Sir Basil Liddell Har a d J. F. C. Fuller, he Fre chma Charles de Gaulle, he America George S. Pa o , a d he Germa s Oswald Lu z a d Hei z Guderia --believed ha armored vehicles held he key o res ori g decisio o he ba lefield. Bu o ly he Germa s co ceived he idea of massi g a ks i divisio -size u i s, wi h i fa ry, ar illery, e gi eers, a d o her suppor i g arms mecha ized a d all movi g a he same pace. Moreover, o ly Lu z a d Guderia received he e husias ic suppor of heir gover me . I he spri g of 1940 heir heories were pu o he es as Germa forces s ruck agai s orway a d De mark i April; i vaded he e herla ds, Belgium, a d Luxembourg i May; a d la e i he same mo h broke hrough a hilly, wooded dis ric i Fra ce. heir colum s sliced hrough o he E glish Cha el, cu i g off Bri ish a d Fre ch roops i or her Fra ce a d Belgium. he Fre ch Army, plagued by low morale, divided comma d, a d primi ive commu ica io s, fell apar . he Bri ish evacua ed heir forces from Du kerque wi h he loss of mos of heir equipme . he Germa s e ered Paris o 14 Ju e, a d he Fre ch gover me , defea is a d deeply divided poli ically, sued for a armis ice. he success of he Germa Bli zkrieg forced he remai i g comba a s o re hi k heir doc ri e a d res ruc ure heir armies. Wi h his forces occupyi g or her Fra ce a d wi h a puppe Fre ch gover me es ablished i he sou h, Hi ler lau ched he Luf waffe agai s he airfields a d ci ies of E gla d o pave he way for a i vasio . Bri ai 's survival hu g by a hread. From July o Oc ober 1940, while Germa la di g barges a d i vasio forces wai ed o he Cha el coas s, he Royal Air Force, grea ly ou umbered drove he Luf waffe from he day ime skies i he lege dary Ba le of Bri ai . A sea he Bri ish avy, wi h i creasi g America coopera io , fough a despera e ba le agai s Germa submari e packs o keep he or h A la ic ope . Bri ish pug aci y fi ally forced Hi ler o aba do all pla s o i vade E gla d. I February Hi ler se roops u der L . Ge . Erwi Rommel o aid he I alia s who were figh i g agai s he Bri ish i or h Africa. Germa forces comi g o he aid of he I alia s i he Balka s rou ed a Bri ish expedi io i Greece, a d Germa para roopers seized he impor a isla d of Cre e. he , i Ju e 1944, Hi ler ur ed agai s his supposed ally, he Sovie U io , wi h he full migh of he Germa armed forces. Armored spearheads hrus deep i o Sovie erri ory, drivi g oward Le i grad, Moscow, a d he Ukrai e a d cu i g off e ire Sovie armies.
Montgomery: Master of the Battlefield, p. 768 257 259.PПисьмо к Бруку от 26. VII. 1983. Цит. по: Нamiltоn N. Op. cit, p. 780 258 260.PStасеу С. P. The Canadian Army in World War II, vol. Ill, p. 275 259 261.PHamilton N. Op. cit., p. 779 260 262.PStасеу С. Р. Op. cit., p. 252 261 263.PIbid., p. 276 262 264.PIbid., p. 266 263 265.PScott D. Typhoon Pilot, p. 129 264 266.PWoolcombe R. Op. cit., p. 107 265 267.PАмериканские историки, авторы книг о военно-политических событиях в Западной Европе в 19441945Pгг. 266 268.PСм.: Rohmer R. Patton's Cap. London, 1981 267 269.PBradley O. Op. cit., p. 337 268 270.PStасеу С. Р. Op. cit., p. 275 269 271.PНесомненно, более полезным и соответствующим современной обстановке было бы, на наш взгляд, мнение автора о ценности и практическом значении опыта сотрудничества Великобритании и США с СССР в годы войны для укрепления мира и международной безопасности.P Прим. ред. 270 272.PLiddel Hart. History of the Second World War. London, 1951, p. 543 271 273.PСavin J. On to Berlin, p. 121
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