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Word-formation of the English language. Conversion

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Affix word-forma io . Derived ou s: -derived ou s wi h ag a ive mea i g. affix produc ivi y w-f model mea i g a d sema ic classes he usage his oric appeara ce a d evolu io comme s 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 -er -or -ee -is -i e1 -i e2 -ma 1 he mos produc ive. I has almos absolu ely produc ivi y. he sy o ym suf -er, bu less produc ive. Is o very produc ive because he sema ic class of V s ems capable o joi his suf is o umerous: hey are he Vs wi h ‘ o ha g over’, ‘e rus ’ mea i g produc ive sy wi h is i he mea i g of a perso bu is less produc ivi yi is a homo ym of -i e1 a d produc ivesy wi h -er ha is why has he less produc ivi y. V ma > - here are some ou s which mea s belo gi g o he place :Lo do er, E gla der. -i habi a of some area :foreig er, Bri isher. -Adj. mea s color or special i dica io . Deriva ives have he mea i g of quali y or i dica io : gree er, fresher ‘a s ude of he firs year’. -a perso of a age: fif ee ers, for y i er. -value of mo ey: fiver, 5$, 5 pou ds; e er 10$, 10p. Ag e ive mea i g: -professio ac ivi y of a perso : sewer, si ger, lear er. -a perso ac i g i such way a ha mome : si ger, speaker, lear er. -a perso who has he i dica io a d abili y o do his ac io : swimmer.1 I s rume al mea i g: de o es i s rume s, devices, e c: o sow >sower, o a omize > a omizer, o sile ce >sile ser. -scie ce a d ech ical erms: ge era or, i dica or, radia or. -i s rume al mea i g -has he mea i g of objec of ac i g which de o ed by he s em. his objec ca be direc or i direc , i depe ds o he objec which he V s em eeds: employee ‘o e who is employee’, de ai ee ‘priso er’. he ac ive mea i g ‘a perso ’. here are differe ua ce of mea i g which depe ds o deriva s em: -mea s a perso whose occupa io marked by he s em: machi is , au omobilis , violi is . -a perso occupied i ha bru ch of ac ivi y which he s em de o es: geologis , biologis . -a follower of some doc ri e, heory, idea, view, e c.: Darwi is , Pushci is . -a suppor er of a poli ical a d si ce e de cy: commu is , pacifis . -i habi a of he area, cou ry, isla d, ow : Syd eyi e, suburba i e, ci yi e; -a follower of he doc ri e, si ce a d poli ical e de cy, e c.: Hi leri e, Marxi e. -joi s he s ems of proper people’s ames, who was he firs who fou d ou he mi eral, chemical or explosive subs a ce, or he place where hey were firs fou d or discovered: haueri e ‘af er F Vo Haure, Aus ralia geologis ’, dolomi e ‘af er he Fre ch geologis Dolomier’, ypri e ‘from Ypres, a ow i W Belgium’. - ames of chemical or explosive subs a ce where he mai i dica io s are de o ed by he s em: sepioli e V er> had he mea i g ‘a perso doi g . wha he s em de o es’: OE car ere-MoE car er, OE u ridere-MoE ou rider. ME he mea i g become wider: ha er, hu er. I ook he mea i g ‘belo g o some area’ Lo do er. Goes back o he Roma la guage. I ME period V or> had ag e ive a d i s rume al mea i g. I MoE has i s rume al mea i g i differe bru ches of si ce: reac or (1928), compressor (1920), elumi a or (1928).

Roma Vs perloca ed i E glish wi h Fre ch juridical a d admi is ra ive erms amed perso s: appellee, assig ee. La er -ee bega joi i g he Germa V s ems: drawee. Is ake i E glish as a word-forma ive eleme (F-is e, L-is a, Gr-is es). I MoE me ca me o o ly i prevoca ed from R bu i ew-forms. Greece origi . I OE period here are a lo of ’-ma ’ words wi h a d wi hou he i erfix ‘-s-‘: carlma , ceap-ma >chapma , r des-ma > redesma . MoE lema selec or. Bu o e was formed o he E glish basis. hough he suf -ee is o very produc ive, some imes i maids fresh forma io s. I joi s he proper ames of i i ia ors of some doc ri es, e de cies, e c. o produce he ames of sols he suff joi s he s ems de o es he ames of acids e ded by -ous: i ri e < i rous acid. As o e word here are 65% -ma words i E glish, he words wri e hyphe a e are abou 10%; wi h i erfix -s- -22%: salesma 3 ; words wri e dis i c ly -3%. I is ypical for hese words savi g he emphasis i firs compo e ( he differe ce be wee ma words a d compou ds). 1 Very of e he -er ou s have all hree ua ce of mea i g: player: 1)ac or; 2)o e who is playi g ow; 3) o e who has a abili y o play. 1 he a . is he suff ‘woma ’: horsema -horsewoma , oblema - oblewoma ; bu here are some words wi h -ma which have o a parallel wi h -woma : pos ma , seama . A word chairma ca de o e a ma a d a woma . Some imes i is possible o use -maid i s ead of woma : milkma -milkmaid, barma -barwoma . Bu i is more preferable o use he words wi h -woma as more eu ral compo e . -Maid is usually de o es a you g gerl. 2 his class of words is o umerous because of more produc ive suf -er. 3 i erfix -s- : -a suffix of plural: alesma a sig al > o sig al a d o commi > commissio > o commissio . he commo ess of co versio ca possibly be see as breaki g dow he dis i c io be wee form classes i E glish a d leadi g o a sys em where here are closed se s such as pro ou s a d a si gle ope se of lexical ha ca be used as required. Such a move could be seem as par of he re d away from sy he ic s ruc ure a d owards a aly ic s ruc ure which has bee fairly ypical of he his ory of E glish over he las mille ium. his sugges io is, of course highly specula ive. Co versio as a sy ac ic process.Co versio is he use of a form which is regarded as bei g basically of o e form class as hough i were a member of a differe form class, wi hou a y co comi a cha ge of form. here are, however, a umber of i s a ces where cha ges of his ype occur wi h such ease a d so regularly ha ma y scholars prefer o see ha as ma ers of sy ac ic usage ra her ha as word-forma io . he mos obvious cases are hose where he cha ge of form class is o a major o e (such as from ou o verb or adjec ive o ou ) bu a cha ge from o e ype of ou o a o her or o e ype of verb o a o her. he cleares example of his ype is he use of cou able ou s as u cou able a d vise versa. I some ea, ea is used as a u cou able ou , while i wo eas i is used as a cou able ou ; goa is ormally a cou able ou , bu if a goa is bei g ea e i is qui e i order o ask for a slice of goa , where goa is used as a u cou able ou .

I ge eral, give a sui able co ex , i is possible o use almos a y ou o ei her way: for example, whe he Goo s ook par i a mou ai -ea i g compe i io , i would have bee perfec ly possible o ask whe her a yo e wa ed some more mou ai , usi g mou ai as a u cou able ou . Similarly, proper ou s ca be easily used as commo ou s as i Which Joh do you mea ? or he A he s i Ohio is o as i eres i g as he A he s i Greece. I ra si ive verbs are freque ly used as ra si ive verbs, as i He is ru i g a horse i he Derby or he army flew he civilia s o safe y. Fi ally, o -gradable adjec ives are freque ly used as gradable adjec ives, as i She looks very Fre ch or ew Zeala der are said o be more E glish. Such processes are very ear he i flec io al e d of word-forma io . A o her case where i is o comple ely clear whe her or o co versio is i volved is wi h co versio o adjec ives. his depe ds crucially o how a adjec ive is defi ed. For some scholars i appears o be he case ha he use of a eleme i a ribu ive posi io is sufficie for ha eleme o be classified as a adjec ive. By his cri erio bow wi dow, head eacher, model airpla e a d s o e well all co ai adjec ives formed by co versio formed by co versio . However, i has already bee argued ha such colloca io s should be see as compou ds, which makes i u ecessary o view such eleme s as i s a ces of co versio . Quirk sugges ha whe such eleme s ca occur o o ly i a ribu ive posi io bu also i predica ive posi io , i is possible o speak of co versio o a adjec ive. O he basis of: his wi dow is bow his eacher is head his airpla e is model his wall is s o e hey would hus co clude ha , i he examples above, head a d s o e bu o bow a d model have become adjec ives by co versio . Bu his i roduces a dis i c io be wee wo ki ds of modifier which is o releva elsewhere i he grammar a d which masks a grea deal of similari y. I is herefore o clear ha his sugges io is of a y grea value. his is o mea o imply ha co versio o a adjec ive is impossible, merely ha i is leas co roversial ha co versio is i volved where he form is o used a ribu ively. Where he form is used a ribu ively, cri eria for co cludi g ha co versio has ake place mus be spelled ou wi h grea care. Apar from hose me io ed, possible cri eria are he abili y o be used i he compara ive a d superla ive, he abili y o be modified by a d very, he abili y o be used as a base for adverbial -ly or omi al - ess suffixa io . I mus be poi ed ou ha very few adjec ives fi all hese cri eria. Margi al cases of co versio . here are cases of cha ge i form class from a verb o a ou a d from a verb o a adjec ive which do o i volve a y affixa io , bu which are o clearly i s a ces of co versio . hese are cases here is a shif of s ress, freque ly wi h a co comi a cha ge i segme al form, bu o cha ge i he morphopho emic form (or i he or hography). Es ablished examples of verb > ou shif ki d are abs rac , discou , impor , refill, ra sfer Gimso /2/, a d of verb > adjec ive shif : abs rac , freque , modera e, perfec . here is a cer ai amou of evide ce ha , a leas i some varie ies of E glish, hese dis i c io are o lo ger co sis e ly draw , a d such examples are becomi g clear cases of co versio .

The word "Magi" comes to the English language direct from the Greek, which in turn acquired it by gradual steps from the Persian, Chaldean, Median, and Assyrian tongues. It means, literally, "wonder worker," and was applied to the members of the occult priestly orders of Persia, Media, and Chaldea, who were Mystic Adepts and Occult Masters. Ancient history is full of references to this body of men. They were the custodians of the world's occult knowledge for centuries, and the priceless treasures of the Inner Teachings held by the race to-day have come through the hands of these men-the Magi-who tended the sacred fires of Mysticism and kept The Flame burning. In thinking of their task, one is reminded of the words of Edward Carpenter, the poet, who sings: "Oh, let not the flame die out! Cherished age after age in its dark caverns, in its holy temples cherished. Fed by pure ministers of love-let not the flame die out." The title of "Magi" was highly esteemed in those ancient days, but it fell into disrepute in the latter times owing to its growing use as an appellation of the practitioners of "Black Magic," or "evil wonder-workers" or sorcerers, of those days

1. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

2. The history of grammatical study of the English language

3. Polysemy In The Semantic Field Of Movement In The English Language

4. The English language

5. Famous journalist of the English-speaking country. Benjamin Franklin

6. Сборник диалогов по английскому языку для развития устной речи старшеклассников (The collection of dialogues on English language)
7. Modern English Word-Formation
Modern English Word-Formation
8. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english
History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

9. Use of the Topical Project Work “My Body” for Developing All Language Skills in Form 4

10. Some problems of borrowing in the Russian language

11. Comparative Analysis of the Compound Words

12. History of english language

13. The problems of the Subjunctive Mood in English

14. Formation of group behaviour in the organisations

15. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

16. Going public and the dividend policy of the company

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Раздел: Горки

17. Why do we learn English language?

18. The conflicts of the modern world. A competitive society

19. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

20. Представители Ренессанса (Representatives of the renaissance and thair contribution to the literature)

21. Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English

22. The Queen of the UK
The Queen of the UK
23. Русские заимствования в английском языке (Russian borrowings in English language)
24. Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English
Lexicology. Word structure in Modern English

25. The fastest computers of the world

26. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

27. Geometrization of the Fundamentals of Chemistry

28. The Taming of the Shrew

29. History of the USA

30. English language

31. Culture of the youth

32. The uniqueness of the British

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Раздел: Ночники

33. The protection of the environment

34. Cities of the USA

35. The Doctrine of the "Mysterious Female" in Taoism

36. Flora and Fauna of the USA

37. Why was Washington made the capital of the United States?

38. Art of the Edo Period
Art of the Edo Period
39. Category of number of the noun
Category of number of the noun
40. English Language
English Language

41. Political System of the USA

42. The Comparative Analysis Of The History Of The Computer Science And The Computer Engineering In The USA And Ukraine

43. The war of the roses

44. The English Countryside

45. Survey of the British Geography and Life

46. Henry Wadsworth Longfellow: Most Popular Poet of the Nineteenth Century

47. Problems of the youth (friendship, love, conflicts)

48. Some problems of the russian spelling

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Раздел: Перчатки
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Раздел: Сумки для обуви
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Раздел: Прочие

49. American Literature: An Overview Of The Development From The 17th To The 20th Centu-ries

50. Valley of the Kings

51. Establishment of the Federal judicial system

52. The development of the drama. The theatres and actors

53. The Taming of the Shrew

54. Population of the UK
Population of the UK
55. Economy of the Republic of Ireland
Economy of the Republic of Ireland
56. Islam in the eyes of the West
Islam in the eyes of the West

57. The political method of the International Socialist Organisation

58. Drug trafficking - a global challenge of the XXI century

59. Перевод реферата "Acquaintance with geometry as one of the main goals of teaching mathematics to preschool children"

60. Constellations of the star sky

61. Emblems of the UK

62. Industrial development of the African countries

63. Reculiarites of Teaching English

64. Role of the interpreter in the modern world

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Раздел: Чернографитные
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65. Sport in different countries of the world

66. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

67. The Heraldic Symbolism of the Unicorn on the British Coat-of-Arms

68. The origins of the International Socialists

69. The philosophy should meet the challenge of the new millennium

70. The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
The Socialist-Revolutionaries and the labor movement (the beginning of the twentieth century)
71. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)
72. Historical measurement of the science of governing
Historical measurement of the science of governing

73. Division of the sentence into phrases

74. Intellectual history of the Europe

75. The impact of the French Revolution on the European system

76. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

77. The Tax System of the United States

78. Подготовка к TOEFL - Test of English as a Foreign Language

79. The Influence of English Mass Culture on Estonia

80. THE Growing Influence of English Mass Culture

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Раздел: Металлические ручки
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Раздел: Капиллярные

81. The system of english tenses

82. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks

83. Multiple Intelligences in the structure of a new English syllabus for secondary school

84. The Language of Narrative Writing

85. The system of English verbs

86. The effect of light intensity on the amount of chlorophyll in “Cicer arietinum”
87. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain
88. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

89. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

90. The Adverse Effects of Green Lawns

91. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

92. Alaska’s Wildlife: on the Verge of Extinction (Живая природа Штата Аляска на грани исчезновения)

93. Motivation: Reward system and the role of compensation

94. The Proverbs Are Children Of Experience (Пословицы - Дети Опыта)

95. The Tower of London

96. The Economy of Great Britain

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Раздел: Однотонная, голография
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Раздел: Синие

97. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

98. The New-York City, Places of interest

99. The profile of an effective manager

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