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Some problems of borrowing in the Russian language

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S.B. eveji a his ar icle co cer s borrowi gs from Europea la guages. Al hough he s udy of foreig lexics a d, wider, la guage borrowi g has i s ow his ory over a lo g period of ime i li guis ics bo h i Russia a d abroad (o e ca me io he ames of grea scholars who deal wi h his problem: Bloomfield, Scherba, Gro . Hauge ) he problem of borrowi g by he Russia la guage has ' bee solved ye . he leas i ves iga ed aspec is he graphic a d or hographic o e. Spelli g of loa s co ai s complex of heore ical problems: pri cipals of spelli g borrowi gs a d ways of reproduci g foreig words i he Russia la guage; descrip io of pho e ic a d morphological adap ive processes i he foreig lexics; formi g or hographic s a dard, correla io of orm a d codifica io of borrowi gs. Ways of ra smissio of loa s a d processes of adap a io are exami ed i he paper. hey are co sidered as applied o he ma erial of foreig words from "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639." - a busi ess wri e la guage mo ume of he XVII ce ury. Up o ow he ac ive borrowi g from Europea la guages was believed o begi i Pe er I epoch. However he period jus precede was sig ifica oo. A lo of words fixed i dic io aries for he begi i g of he XVIII ce ury pe e ra ed i o he Russia wri e la guage i he XVII ce ury. hus exami a io of "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639." permi s us o correc some da a co ec ed wi h foreig word appeara ce. Accordi g o "Этимологический словарь русского языка " by M. Fasmer he word "галера" pe e ra ed i o Russia i 1665. Bu i was me io ed i he "Kura y" i 1620. I also co cer s he followi g words: "герб"(1644) - 1620, "коруна"(1613) - 1600, "карета"(XVII - XVIII) - 1636, "миля"(1702) - 1620, "мызник"(1701) - 1600, "персона"(1633) - 1620, "пистолет"(1689) - 1630-31, "рота"(1701) - 1600, "секретарь"(1720) - 1621. As for he Russia spelli g he XVII ce ury was he period of s a dardizi g. he a alyzi g or hographical mo ume s of ha ime allows us bo h o re race or hographical orm formi g a d o realise phe ome a of moder la guage. Le me make clear wha I mea by borrowi g. his co cep is used i a varie y of se ses. I shall use i o mea 1) he eleme of a alie la guage which is carried from o e la guage o a o her as a resul of la guage co ac s a d also 2) he process of eleme ra si io . I may be said here is some radi io o call he words less adap ed i he Russia la guage "foreig words". hough i is fair ha he divisio of words depe di g o heir adap a io is correc i a cer ai his orical mome o ly. I suppose he foreig word is more preferable for his work because mos of he words prese ed i he "Kura y" are a he s age of pe e ra io . Bu he fac of s ra ge word pe e ra io ca ' be he evide ce of i s borrowi g ye . 1. Ways of reproduci g foreig words Spelli g of foreig words is a pressi g a d u decided problem i he Russia which is explai ed by several ways of i roduci g borrowi gs i o he Russia ex . he ways depe d upo la guages a d loa s. A prese here are various classifica io s of borrowi g ways Russia scholars offer. Le me i roduce my sys em worked ou o heir base. I i cludes four ways of borrowi g: 1) ra sla io ; 2) ra spla a io (accordi g o G.G

. ymofeeva presupposes a mecha ical ra spor a io of lexical u i graphemes from o e la guage o a o her wi hou a y cha ges i borrowed word spelli g. E. g.: 'ad libi um' ); 3) ra sli era io (whe graphemes are reproduced by equivale graphemes of a o her s a dardized wri e la guage. E.g.:'Диест - Germa : Dies '); 4) ra spho i g ( his erm from he classifica io by ymofeeva should ake he place of he co ve io al (bu o very correc a d co ve ie ) prac ical ra scrip io firs used by A.M. Suho y . So ra spho i g is a reproduc io of a word wri e form o scrip . E. g.: 'Киль - Germa : Kiel '. I is ecessary o divide i i o codified ra spho i g comi g hrough he wri e la guage, co corda wi h accep ed rules of ra scribi g by mea s of he Russia alphabe a d u codified ra spho i g comi g hrough he spoke la guage, u orma ively, where i flue ce of dialec s, speaker's i dividual peculiari ies is possible). "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639." co ai s a grea deal of foreig lexics so lo g as i is he ra sla io of foreig press repor s mai ly. he la guage which he foreig words have come from direc ly havi g bee defi ed, word forms i i should be res ored. he , i is ecessary o fi d ou he spelli g a d pro u cia io of borrowi gs i ha ime. For our work all mass of he foreig words is limi ed o borrowi gs from Germa (Ger.), Fre ch(Fr.), I alia (I .), Polish, Greek, La i . Af er he res ora io of word forms i foreig la guages a d heir a alysis i is observed he abse ce of ra spla a ed forms i he "Ves y - Kura y" a all. A series of words is i roduced by ra sla io bo h o al (f.e.: Теплый колодезь - Warmbru ) a d par ial (Eизеннов городок - Eise s ad ). I should be o iced here is a obvious e de cy o borrow words by ra sli era io . E. g.: Арбоис - Fr. Arbois , Полигна - Fr. Polig y , e c. here is a grea umber of words demo s ra i g combi a io of ra sli era io a d ra spho i g. E.g.: Монпелир - Fr. Mo pellier , Меисен - Ger. Meisse , e c. 2. Pho e ic a d morphological adap ive processes i he foreig lexics from he ma erial of "Ves y-Kura y. 1600-1639." Af er bei g ake i o a borrowi g la guage sys em a foreig word begi s o i erac i immedia ely. herefore he borrowi g is allowed o be co sidered as he process of gradual adap а io i o space a d ime i. e. he accommoda io of he foreig word o differe par s of he recipie la guage sys em. Adap а io s may be various a d cover all iers of he la guage s ruc ure. he process of adap а io has complex a ure. he base for observa io of adap а io ways is vocal a d co so a subs i u io s. (Subs i u io s are he Russia sou ds represe ed i a wri e fixed form which correspo d o he foreig la guage sou ds bei g i i ial for hem). Pho e ic a d morphological adap а io s were described by V.G. Demya ov. You could see he followi g adap a io s i he "Ves y-Kura y". 1. Simplifica io of vocal groups. Si ce combi a io s of vowels i side a morpheme are o a ural for he Russia words he la guage ries o ge rid of u usual combi a io s. here are some ways o realize his simplifica io e de cy: by a si gle vowel (Fr. ua: Мa ua - Манту), by i ervocalic appeara ce (I . ia: Bolog ia - Бологнея, Pavia - Павия), by appeara ce of semivowel -в- (Ger.

au: Pillau - Пилоyв, I . ia: Saviglia o - Савиглевано), a d by co so a iza io of o e of vowels (Ger. au: Aurich - Аврик, orgau - Торгав). Bu some imes here is re ai i g vowel combi a io s. (Ger. Hildesheim - Гилдесгеим, Ger. aumburg - Наумбург, I . Cu eo - Кунео, I . Saviglia o - Савиглиано). 2. Co ami a io is a i erac io of he la guage u i s co ac i g ei her i associa ive (paradigma ic) or i sy agma ic rela io s. his i erac io leads o sema ic or formal al era io of la guage u i s a d freque ly a ew la guage u i аppears. Co ami a ed form acquires rai s of bo h i erac i g forms. A firs co ami a ed phe ome o is always a depar ure from la guage orms. Bu i ime i ca become s a dard. I is accep ed o dis i guish he co ami a io proceedi g wi hi o e la guage sys em a d he co ami a io co ec ed wi h he i erac io of various la guage sys ems. he las akes place firs of all i he par of vocabulary which is he leas commo use i speech where regula i g ac io of orms is mi imal bu i flue ce of differe la guages a d mul ico ac ivi y are grea . (Jus ha very la guage si ua io is prese ed i he foreig word ma erial of he "Ves y - Kura y".) I is o easy o recog ize his process because i presupposes k owlege of s a dard, ascer ai me of foreig models. Besides here are fi al resul s of his process i he ex s. Co ami a ed forms may reflec : 1)readi g (or pro u cia io ) of differe la guages. E. g.: Fr. LaRochelle - Рошхелле showi g mix ure of Fre ch readi g ch ; 2)various pro u cia io i a la guage-origi . E. g.: Ger. S eiermark - Шстирмарская земля. (Germa dialec s vary i pro u cia io of combi a io s : ); 3)combi a io of differe ways of reproduc io ( ra scrip io a d ra sli era io ). Fr. Marseille - Марсеили. 3. Assimila io a d dissimila io are combi a orial sou d cha ges caused by sy agma ic posi io of a sou d i a word. Give as fi al resul s (sou d subs i u io s) hey ca be: vocal a d co so a accordi g o par icipa io i word-forma io (а - а > а - е: Fr. Kalmar - Калмер; mb > нб: Ger. Wir emberg - Виртенбурх), co ac a d dis a accordi g o he level of posi io al co di io ali y (sb > c : Ger. Di kelsbubl - в Дункелспиле; v - v > в - б: Fr. Vervi s - Верберъ), progressive a d regressive accordi g o he direc io i word pho e ic s ruc ure (у - е > у - у: Ger. Ukermark - в Укурмарке; е - о > о - о: Fr. Me o e - в Монтону), o al a d par ial accordi g o he level of sou d resembla ce (а - е > а - а: Ger. Magdeburg - Магдабур; е - а > у - а: I . Bergamo - из Бургама). 4. Me a hesis is a i volu ary a sposi io of wo sou ds or syllables i a word. I is he peculiari y of la guage sys em periphery, ha is why i s prevale ce amo g foreig words is qui e a ural. Me a hesis may be co ac a d dis a : g o > ног: I . Carmag ola - Карманогла; el > ле: Ger. Hamel - у Гамлена; er > ра: Ger. Аms еrdаm - Амстрадам (me a hesis is accompa ied by assimila io ); mm - e - r > р - е - мм: Ger. Emmerich - к Еремъмиху (i a sou d). 5. Morphological a d sema ic a alogies. Foreig words i he borrowi g process are subjec ed o bo h combi a orial cha ges a d various a alogy i flue ce. hus he followi g forms: (в) Бярнове - Ger.

Srtryjkowski, retold (in a somewhat confused and tangled way) some data from the Russian chronicles, as well as cited what they themselves heard in the East. In the 17th century, further evidence on pagan beliefs was collected by the German, English and other European travelers to Russia. In Russia itself, the studies of domestic paganism began only since the era of Peter the Great, i.e. the 18th century. Initially, the confused notions of Western scholarship of the time were borrowed wholesale. In the early 19th century, Russian scholars still based their approach on purely speculative considerations. They produced long lists of gods culled from enigmatic words in proverbs and songs (cf. A. S. Kaisarov, G. Glinka, a.o.). They strived to present the religion of their ancestors in a positive and idealized manner, not only as pre-eminent among the other pagan religions, but also as near to Christianity (cf. P. Stroev, M. Kastorsky, N. Kostomarov, S. M. Solovyev). The Slavophiles, however, did not support fully this approach; they advanced the idea of the original closeness of Slavic customs to orthodox monogamy and denied the existence of any developed pagan polytheism at any time

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