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The history of Christmas

Совок большой.
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Фонарь садовый «Тюльпан».
Дачные фонари на солнечных батареях были сделаны с использованием технологии аккумулирования солнечной энергии. Уличные светильники для
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Раздел: Уличное освещение

Chris mas ime he radi io of wi er fes ivals is a lo g-s a di g o e. Ma y civilisa io s believed ha he cold a d dark of wi er was a ime whe heir Gods were i ba le wi h e emies, a d hey would hold celebra io s i order o help heir dei ies wi . Sca di avia, where he co cep of a ‘Yule ide’ origi ally evolved, would experie ce a period of several days where he su did o show a all i he dep h of wi er, a d would hold a fes ival i order o herald i s reappeara ce. he wi er sols ice was also he mos prac ical ime for feas s o be held: ca le which could o be fed hrough he wi er were slaugh ered i he la e au um , a d as a resul he wi er would be he o e ime whe Europea peasa s were mos likely o have a s ock of fresh mea , which eeded o be ei her sal ed, or ea e . Equally he beer which had bee brewed i he au um would be jus ready o dri k by he ime ha he wi er fes ivals came arou d. I is herefore o surprise ha by he ime of Chris ia i y here was already a es ablished his ory of fes ivals which were held i la e December. O e of he mos o able celebra io s was he Roma Sa ur alia – a hedo is ic fes ival where frie ds would be visi ed a d prese s excha ged. However, he 25 h of December was also sacred o he Persia religio of Mi hraism, as he bir hday of heir God. he early Chris ia Church did o celebra e he bir h of Chris , preferri g o co ce ra e o his dea h a d resurrec io a Eas er. Chris mas may have bee celebra ed from as early as 98AD, bu i was o ly i 350AD ha Pope Julius I declared Chris mas o be he 25 h of December. he da e of Chris ’s bir h is o ac ually me io ed i he Bible, a d he prese ce of shepherds grazi g heir sheep o he hillsides has led ma y biblical scholars o sugges ha Chris mus have bee bor duri g he spri g. However, he choice of he 25 h of December has i flue ced he developme of he Chris mas fes ival irreversibly. Ma y of he radi io s associa ed wi h wi er sols ice fes ivals seamlessly became par of he Wes er radi io of Chris mas ime. Over he ce uries ma y have ried o rever o a more solem celebra io of Chris ’s bir h: Oliver Cromwell ca celled Chris mas af er he eve s of he E glish Civil War, disgus ed by he behaviour of commo people o wha was supposed o be a religious fes ival. he puri a s i Bos o eve declared Chris mas illegal for a period i he 17 h ce ury, a d here was a fi e for a yo e who celebra ed he occasio . Al hough Chris mas would o become a federal holiday u il 1870 i he US, he radi io s surrou di g Chris mas developed a d grew duri g he i e ee h a d we ie h ce uries, o become he Chris mas ha we, a d he shoppi g ce res of he world, celebra e oday. Chris mas rappi gs Ma y of he es ablished Chris mas ime radi io s have li le or o hi g o do wi h he biblical accou of Chris ’s bir h. Some exis ed for hu dreds, or housa ds of years before Chris ia i y, whils o hers have evolved, seemi gly ou of o hi g, over he pas few ce uries.Evergree rees a d pla s were of e used i he religious fes ivals of he pas . Duri g he wi er, whe every hi g else was dyi g, he co i ui g gree of fir- rees a d mis le oe was co sidered o symbolise he rebir h ha would come i he spri g.

As a resul evergree foliage was used i wi er fes ivals by he Viki gs, whils Druids i Bri ai a d Fra ce would decora e rees wi h frui a d ca dles i ho our of heir harves gods. he Roma Sa ur alia also used o decora e heir houses wi h rees bedecked wi h ca dles a d o her brigh ri ke s. Accordi g o lege d, Mar i Lu her decora ed rees wi h ca dles o reflec he beau y of he s ars. I E gla d, he radi io was resurrec ed by Pri ce Alber i 1841. he royal family led he fashio a d Chris mas rees became a es ablished par of he fes ive seaso .Holly a d Mis le oe have also become a ce ral par of Chris mas. Mis le oe was of e used by druids. I was believed o have mys ical powers, a d i was of e hu g over doors i order o keep ou evil i flue ces. he radi io of kissi g u der he mis le oe may have come from Sca di avia, where mis le oe was associa ed wi h he goddess of love, Frigga. Because of i s paga associa io s, he Chris ia Church objec ed o mis le oe bei g used for Chris mas celebra io s. As a subs i u e hey sugges ed holly, a o her evergree , claimi g ha he sharp leaves represe ed Chris ’s crow of hor s, a d he red berries symbolised drops of his blood. Bo h pla s have become a par of he seaso al fes ivi ies. he welve days of Chris mas do appare ly have a Chris ia origi : hey are he welve days be wee Chris mas day a d he feas of he Epipha y (which accordi g o differe i erpre a io s is ei her he day of Chris ’s bap ism or he visi of he wise me ). I is co sidered bad luck if all of he Chris mas decora io s have o bee ake dow by he e d of he welf h day – he 6 h of Ja uary.Chris mas cards emerged i Germa y i he fif ee h ce ury. Ra her ha bei g gree i gs cards, hey were devo io al pic ures o be hu g i he home, wishi g he family a good a d blessed year. I he eigh ee h ce ury he radi io bega o grow, whe seaso ally decora ed cards were used as visi i g cards lef for abse frie ds. However, Chris mas cards would reach heir peak wi h he adve of he Bri ish maili g sys em i he mid- i e ee h ce ury. ow ha le ers could be se arou d he cou ry a high speed a d for low cos s, Chris mas cards became popular as a cheap way o se d Chris mas wishes o frie ds a d rela ives ha you would o see over he fes ive seaso . hey were par icularly popular as a card, se i a u sealed e velope cos o ly half a pe y, half he price of a full le er.Fa her Chris mas’ s ory is well k ow . he origi al model for Sa a, was Sai icholas, he bishop of Myra. Accordi g o lege d, he brough a dowry for hree girls, who were oo poor o fi d husba ds. Whils hey were sleepi g he pu he gif i heir s ocki gs, which were ha gi g by he fire o dry. he cul of Sai icholas spread across much of Europe, a d S icholas’ Day, December 6 h, was a day for givi g a d ki d ess whe pare s would offer prese s o heir childre . he idea of S icholas spread o America wi h he Du ch colo is s, a d i was he America press which ra sformed Fa her Chris mas i o his curre image. Cleme Moore’s poem ‘ he igh Before Chris mas’, published i 1822, i roduced he world o Fa her Chris mas’ flyi g rei deer, a d he way ha he dis ribu ed prese s dow chim ey s acks.

We discovered wha Sa a Claus looks like, whe a magazi e called Harpers Weekly published a series of pic ures by he car oo is homas ash. His red sui wi h whi e rimmi gs came, coi cide ally, from S icholas, whose bishop’s robes would have bee red a d whi e. Boxi g Day here are curre ly wo mai heories abou where he radi io a d ame of ‘Boxi g Day’ came from. Some claim ha mos serva s had o work o Chris mas Day i self, so ha hey would o ly be able o leave he house a d visi heir families o he followi g day, he 26 h of December. his was whe he mas er or mis ress of he house would give he employees heir Chris mas boxes. Over ime he radi io has expa ded, so ha ow boxes or gif s are give o a ybody who has provided a service over he previous year: from milkme o clea ers. he seco d heory is ha Boxi g Day is ac ually li ked o he Feas of S S ephe o he 26 h of December. O e of he seve origi al deaco s of he church, S S ephe was ordai ed o provide alms a d care for widows a d he poor. S S ephe ’s Day was he ime whe he church alms boxes were ope ed up a d he mo ey i side was dis ribu ed o beggars a d he eedy.Boxi g Day has probably exis ed i Bri ai si ce he Middle Ages, bu i became a public ba k holiday i 1871, officially falli g o he firs weekday af er Chris mas. ew Year he co cep of celebra i g he daw of he ew Year goes back a very lo g way i deed. he a cie Babylo ia s are believed o have celebra ed he ew Year more ha 4000 years ago. hey eve had he moder radi io of maki g resolu io s o symbolise a fresh s ar . However, he Babylo ia s celebra ed he ew Year a he firs ew moo af er he s ar of spri g, ma chi g he rebir h i a ure a d he s ar of a ew year i agricul ure. he Roma s oo bega by celebra i g he ew Year a some ime i la e March. However, he Roma cale dar had some difficul ies i ma chi g he moveme s of he su , a d al hough he ew Year was celebra ed i March, his did o ecessarily mea ha i was bei g celebra ed i he spri g ime. Eve ually i 153 BC he Se a e declared ha he s ar of he ew Year was o come o Ja uary 1s . I is believed ha he mo h of Ja uary may be amed af er Ja us, a wo-faced Roma God, who symbolised cha ge a d rebir h. His wo faces looked back i o he old year, a d forward i o he ew. he Roma cale dar, however, would o fi ally se le u il he Julia sys em was i roduced i 46BC. Al hough Julius kep he 1s of Ja uary as he s ar of he ew Year, 47BC had bee a 445 day year, i order o ge he cale dar back i li e wi h he seaso s. As a resul he ew Year celebra io s ha he Roma s ha ded dow o us were i he middle of wi er. I should be o ed ha he early Chris ia Church disapproved of ew Year fes ivi ies as la e as he Middle Ages, co sideri g hem o be a paga ri ual. he ew Year has always bee much more impor a i Sco la d ha E gla d. Duri g he early par of his ce ury, ma y Sco s would work hrough Chris mas, savi g heir celebra io s u il Ja uary a d he Hogma ay fes ivi ies. he erm ‘Hogma ay’ may have come from a A glo Saxo erm for ‘holy mo h’, or a Gaelic phrase mea i g ‘ ew mor i g’. radi io ally ca o s fire a d bells sou d o mark he ew Year a d he people ve ure ou of heir houses for he radi io of ‘Firs Foo i g’.

New Hampshire New Hampshire (formerly Vermont) contains many rustic little villages with names like “East Thwackmore” featuring quaint little inns where the harried visitor can escape from the high-pressure modern world, with its pesky flush toilets and central heating. New Hampshire is also the home of the famous New England town meeting, a dynamic example of “democracy in action” wherein once a year all the residents of each town gather to lick syrup off each other’s thighs. One of New Hampshire’s most popular attractions is the famous “Old Man of the Mountains,” a natural granite formation that, when viewed from a certain angle, looks like rocks. New Hampshire’s Official State Onion Dip Enhancer is chives. New Jersey New Jersey—nicknamed “The New Jersey Turnpike State”—boasts the nation’s densest population and convenient access to a number of important bridges and tunnels. It’s also a dynamic summer playground, drawing millions of visitors each year to attractions such as Atlantic City, one of the few seaside resorts that would actually be improved by the arrival of an oil slick. Among New Jersey’s many historic sites is Giants Memorial Stadium, erected to mark the burial location of Jimmy Hoffa, visitors are welcome to come place a wreath on his memorial goalposts. The Revolutionary War also occurred in New Jersey, where on Christmas night, 1776, George Washington crossed the Delaware River near Trenton and, in one of the great surprise maneuvers in the history of warfare, found a decent restaurant. New Jersey’s Official State Disease is gout

1. The History of English

2. The History of Alaska (история Аляски)

3. The history of Australia

4. The History of Moscow

5. The history of smart-cards and their place in modern Russia

6. The history of Manhattan
The history of Manhattan
7. The history of Germany and tourism
The history of Germany and tourism
8. The history of grammatical study of the English language
The history of grammatical study of the English language

9. История Советсткого флота (History of the Soviet fleet)

10. History of `The Beatles` and biographies of members in english

11. History of democracy of the USA

12. A (Very) Brief History of the English Language

13. The War of the Roses: the Historical Facts of the Tudor Myth (Shakespeare’s Histories)

14. The Tower of London

15. The Economy of Great Britain

16. Роль СМИ в современном мире (The mass media in the life of Society)

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17. History of runic alphabets

18. On the problem of crystal metallic lattice in the densest packings of chemical elements

19. How telecommunication change the defenition of work /Telework/

20. The Castles of England

21. The Impact of the Afghan War on soviet soldiers

22. The Tower of London
The Tower of London
23. The Economy of Great Britain
The Economy of Great Britain
24. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

25. The profile of an effective manager

26. The Tower of London

27. The Hero of Our Time

28. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

29. The house of my dream

30. The role of art in our life

31. Raskolnikov and Svidrigailov: on the brink of suicide. Ф.М. Достоевский, Преступление и наказание

32. Династия Тюдоров (essay the house of Tudor)

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33. Allergy Enlightenment: Is Modern Medicine Fighting the Causes of This Ailment? Are Doctors Telling Us Everything?

34. The Consequences of the Soviet-Afghan War

35. Апокатастасис и "Благое молчание" в эсхатологии св. Максима исповедника (Apokatastasis and «Honorable silence» in the eschatology of st. Maximus the confessor)

36. Особенности ведения бизнеса в Китае (The peculiarities of marketing strategy development in China)

37. Мальтийский еврей (The Jew of Malta)

38. The practice of modern medicine
The practice of modern medicine
39. THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR
THE EVOLUTION OF AMERICAN NATIONAL SECURITY POLICY SINCE THE END OF SECOND WORLD WAR
40. The City of London and its role as a financial centre
The City of London and its role as a financial centre

41. Переведенная на английский лекция по теме Money and banking (деньги и банковское дело), the role of banks (роль банков), modern banking (современная банковская система)

42. London - the capital of Great Britain

43. The 8th of March

44. The protection of the environment

45. The Role of Smallpox Vaccination in Mortality Decline in the Great Britain through Eradicating the Disease

46. The commonwealth of Australia

47. The Commonwealth of Australia

48. History of Basketball

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49. Has the EU reached the limits of integration?

50. Washington is the capital of the USA

51. The pride of the nation

52. The constitution of Ukraine

53. Eyck, Jan van: The Adoration of the Lamb

54. The main fault of The 70s or the years of “might-have-been hopes”
55. The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century
The economy of KOREA - Looking Ahead to the 21st Century
56. The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution
The Algorithm of a Start and the Development of International Conflicts and Possible Ways of Their Solution

57. The Snows of Mars

58. The development of computers in the USA

59. The war of the roses

60. The Future of American Youths

61. The making of the collection

62. For the Beauty of the Earth

63. The Grapes of Wrath

64. The Formation of Youth Subcultures

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65. The Restoration and After: The Tower and the Office of Ordnance

66. The Taming of the Shrew

67. The map of England

68. History of San Marino

69. History of Belarus

70. The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
The notion of the agreement of the purchase and sale According to art
71. The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks
The improvement of work on the rhythm in the classes of english on the materials of limericks
72. Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials
Bilateral relations between countries and the complexity of newspaper editorials

73. The role of deuterium in molecular evolution

74. Communication The Exchange of Information

75. History of American Literature

76. History of Homeschooling in USA

77. Oscar Wilde "The picture of Dorian Gray"

78. The category of Mood

79. The emergence of the first Polish socialist parties

80. The Infinitive Constructions and The Ways of Their Using

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81. The marking of the Russian Revolution

82. The origins of the International Socialists

83. The Participation of American and British Youth in Political Life of Their Countries.

84. The place of “Macbeth” among Shakespeare’s tragedies

85. The problems of oral translation

86. The Science Of Grammar
The Science Of Grammar
87. The system of English verbs
The system of English verbs
88. Historical measurement of the science of governing
Historical measurement of the science of governing

89. The Architecture of Ancient Rome

90. Eugene Hlebtsevich and the establishment of free public libraries in Belarus in the early twentieth century in the context of socio-political and cultural processes of the time

91. Speeches workers Grodno province in 1905-1907 and the emergence of trade unionism

92. The Radicalism of the American Revolution

93. The collection of French art in the Hermitage

94. Advertising in the world of art

95. The models of atom’s nucleus and table of elements.

96. The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland

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97. Comparison of the Renaissance and Enlightenment (Сравнение Ренессанса и Просвещения)

98. Pogroms in Azerbaijan and Armenia of 1988-89 As Historical Echo of the 1915 Armenian Genocide (Погромы в Азербайджане и Армении 1988-89 как историческое эхо 1915 Армянского Геноцида)

99. Project of decoding of "The Stermer Effect" (Сигналы из космоса, серии Штермера)


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